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Table 1 Distribution of all variables and their associations with the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine

From: Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intention and willingness to pay: findings from a population-based survey in Bangladesh

Variables Overall
N=894
Intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine
Nob Yesa OR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Socio-demographics
Age
  18-25 years 328 (36.7) 107 (34.7) 221 (37.7) Reference   Reference  
  26-35 years 339 (37.9) 151 (49) 188 (32.1) 0.603 (0.44-0.826) 0.002 0.735 (0.502-1.075) 0.112
  36-45 years 171 (19.1) 38 (12.3) 133 (22.7) 1.695 (1.104-2.6) 0.016 1.682 (1.032-2.742) 0.037
  > 45 years 56 (6.3) 12 (3.9) 44 (7.5) 1.775 (0.9-3.5) 0.097 2.123 (0.936-4.815) 0.072
Sex
  Male 444 (49.7) 151 (49) 293 (50) 1.04 (0.789-1.37) 0.782
  Female 450 (50.3) 157 (51) 293 (50) Reference    
Marital status
  Unmarried 511 (57.2) 175 (56.8) 336 (57.3) 1.016 (0.764-1.351) 0.914
  Married 357 (39.9) 121 (39.3) 236 (40.3) 0.608 (0.275-1.342) 0.218
  Divorced 26 (2.9) 12 (3.9) 14 (2.4) Reference    
Education level
  Bachelor 500 (55.9) 170 (55.2) 330 (56.3) 1.255 (0.913-1.723) 0.162 1.165 (0.787-1.726) 0.445
  Master's and above 152 (17) 43 (14) 109 (18.6) 1.638 (1.058-2.537) 0.027 1.539 (0.908-2.606) 0.109
  Intermediate or below 242 (27.1) 95 (30.8) 147 (25.1) Reference   Reference  
Monthly family income
  < 20000 BDT 191 (21.4) 60 (19.5) 131 (22.4) 1.269 (0.857-1.88) 0.234
  20000-30000 BDT 193 (21.6) 58 (18.8) 135 (23) 1.353 (0.912-2.007) 0.133
  30000-40000 BDT 238 (26.6) 90 (29.2) 148 (25.3) 0.956 (0.667-1.37) 0.807
  > 40000 BDT 272 (30.4) 100 (32.5) 172 (29.4) Reference    
Number of children in the family
  0 443 (49.6) 152 (49.4) 291 (49.7) 1.436 (1.033-1.996) 0.031 1.486 (0.989-2.234) 0.057
  1 227 (25.4) 60 (19.5) 167 (28.5) 2.087 (1.404-3.103) <0.001 1.658 (1.046-2.627) 0.081
  ≥2 224 (25.1) 96 (31.2) 128 (21.8) Reference   Reference  
Place of residence
  Urban 700 (78.3) 238 (77.3) 462 (78.8) 1.096 (0.786-1.528) 0.589
 Rural 194 (21.7) 70 (22.7) 124 (21.2) Reference    
Health status, COVID-19 experience, and vaccination-related information
Self-rated health status
  Good 633 (70.8) 219 (71.1) 414 (70.6) 0.978 (0.722-1.325) 0.887
  Poor 261 (29.2) 89 (28.9) 172 (29.4) Reference    
History of chronic disease
  Yes 248 (27.7) 92 (29.9) 156 (26.6) 0.852 (0.628-1.156) 0.303
  No 646 (72.3) 216 (70.1) 430 (73.4) Reference    
Ever tested for COVID-19
  Yes 219 (24.5) 66 (21.4) 153 (26.1) 1.296 (0.933-1.8) 0.123
  No 675 (75.5) 242 (78.6) 433 (73.9) Reference    
Ever diagnosed with COVID-19
  Yes 167 (18.7) 56 (18.2) 111 (18.9) 1.052 (0.737-1.501) 0.782
  No 727 (81.3) 252 (81.8) 475 (81.1) Reference    
Family member/friend ever infected by COVID-19
  Yes 235 (26.3) 94 (30.5) 141 (24.1) Reference   Reference  
  No 659 (73.7) 214 (69.5) 445 (75.9) 1.386 (1.019-1.886) 0.037 1.21 (0.838-1.747) 0.309
Impact of COVID-19 on daily life
  Severec 353 (39.5) 102 (33.1) 251 (42.8) 1.513 (1.134-2.019) 0.005 0.914 (0.593-1.408) 0.684
  Littled 541 (60.5) 206 (66.9) 335 (57.2) Reference   Reference  
Impact of COVID-19 on studies/work
  Severec 470 (52.6) 136 (44.2) 334 (57) 1.676 (1.269-2.214) <0.001 1.167 (0.762-1.787) 0.479
  Littled 424 (47.4) 172 (55.8) 252 (43) Reference   Reference  
Impact of COVID-19 on physical/mental health
  Severec 398 (44.5) 110 (35.7) 288 (49.1) 1.74 (1.31-2.311) <0.001 0.968 (0.639-1.466) 0.879
  Littled 496 (55.5) 198 (64.3) 298 (50.9) Reference   Reference  
COVID-19 vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control COVID-19
  Yes 704 (78.7) 188 (61) 516 (88.1) 4.705 (3.353-6.602) <0.001 2.709 (1.827-4.015) <0.001
  No 190 (21.3) 120 (39) 70 (11.9) Reference   Reference  
Doctor’s recommendation is an important factor in vaccination decision-making
  Yes 797 (89.1) 253 (82.1) 544 (92.8) 2.816 (1.835-4.322) <0.001 1.579 (0.935-2.664) 0.087
  No 97 (10.9) 55 (17.9) 42 (7.2) Reference   Reference  
Previous refusals to get any type of vaccination
  No 728 (81.4) 241 (78.2) 487 (83.1) 1.368 (0.967-1.934) 0.076
  Yes 166 (18.6) 67 (21.8) 99 (16.9) Reference    
Perceived stigma of COVID-19
If I had COVID-19, I would be embarrassed
  Agreee 232 (26) 63 (20.5) 169 (28.8) 1.576 (1.134-2.191) 0.007 1.117 (0.688-1.815) 0.654
  Disagreef 662 (74) 245 (79.5) 417 (71.2) Reference   Reference  
If I had COVID-19, people would think badly of me
  Agreee 230 (25.7) 63 (20.5) 167 (28.5) 1.55 (1.114-2.156) 0.009 0.695 (0.389-1.243) 0.220
  Disagreef 664 (74.3) 245 (79.5) 419 (71.5) Reference   Reference  
If I had COVID-19, people would treat me differently.
  Agreee 276 (30.9) 72 (23.4) 204 (34.8) 1.75 (1.279-2.396) <0.001 1.561 (0.917-2.657) 0.101
  Disagreef 618 (69.1) 236 (76.6) 382 (65.2) Reference   Reference  
If I had COVID-19, I would not tell anyone
  Agreee 142 (15.9) 49 (15.9) 93 (15.9) 0.997 (0.684-1.454) 0.988
  Disagreef 752 (84.1) 259 (84.1) 493 (84.1) Reference    
Perceived susceptibility of contracting COVID-19
My chance of getting COVID-19 in the next few months is high
  Agreee 226 (25.3) 71 (23.1) 155 (26.5) 1.2 (0.87-1.657) 0.267
  Disagreef 668 (74.7) 237 (76.9) 431 (73.5) Reference    
I am worried about the likelihood of getting COVID 19
  Agreee 406 (45.4) 112 (36.4) 294 (50.2) 1.762 (1.328-2.338) <0.001 1.643 (1.065-2.537) 0.025
  Disagreef 488 (54.6) 196 (63.6) 292 (49.8) Reference   Reference  
Getting COVID-19 is currently a possibility for me
  Agreee 297 (33.2) 93 (30.2) 204 (34.8) 1.235 (0.918-1.661) 0.164
  Disagreef 597 (66.8) 215 (69.8) 382 (65.2) Reference    
Perceived severity of COVID-19
Complications from COVID-19 are serious
  Agreee 412 (46.1) 120 (39) 292 (49.8) 1.556 (1.175-2.06) 0.002 0.997 (0.649-1.531) 0.987
  Disagreef 482 (53.9) 188 (61) 294 (50.2) Reference   Reference  
I will be very sick if I get infected with COVID-19
  Agreee 365 (40.8) 104 (33.8) 261 (44.5) 1.575 (1.182-2.099) 0.002 0.946 (0.606-1.478) 0.808
  Disagreef 529 (59.2) 204 (66.2) 325 (55.5) Reference   Reference  
I will be very afraid if I become infected with COVID-19
  Agreee 401 (44.9) 122 (39.6) 279 (47.6) 1.386 (1.047-1.833) 0.022 0.871 (0.555-1.366) 0.547
  Disagreef 493 (55.1) 186 (60.4) 307 (52.4) Reference   Reference  
Perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccination
Vaccination is a good idea because I feel less worried about catching COVID-19
  Agreee 329 (36.8) 46 (14.9) 283 (48.3) 5.32 (3.738-7.57) <0.001 2.351 (1.385-3.988) 0.002
  Disagreef 565 (63.2) 262 (85.1) 303 (51.7) Reference   Reference  
Vaccination decreases my chance of getting COVID-19 or its complications
  Agreee 378 (42.3) 59 (19.2) 319 (54.4) 5.042 (3.636-6.993) <0.001 3.083 (1.829-5.198) <0.001
  Disagreef 516 (57.7) 249 (80.8) 267 (45.6) Reference   Reference  
Perceived barriers of COVID-19 vaccination
I am worried about the possible side effects of COVID-19 vaccination would interfere with my usual activities
  Agreee 479 (53.6) 167 (54.2) 312 (53.2) 0.842 (0.689-1.072) 0.060 0.284 (0.216-0.561) 0.002
  Disagreef 415 (46.4) 141 (45.8) 274 (46.8) Reference   Reference  
I am concerned about the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreee 470 (52.6) 164 (53.2) 306 (52.2) 0.96 (0.728-1.265) 0.770
  Disagreef 424 (47.4) 144 (46.8) 280 (47.8) Reference    
I am concerned about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreee 483 (54) 183 (59.4) 300 (51.2) 0.716 (0.542-0.947) 0.019 0.284 (0.187-0.429) <0.001
  Disagreef 411 (46) 125 (40.6) 286 (48.8) Reference   Reference  
I am concerned about the affordability (high cost of the vaccine) of getting the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreee 450 (50.3) 151 (49) 299 (51) 1.083 (0.822-1.427) 0.570
  Disagreef 444 (49.7) 157 (51) 287 (49) Reference    
I am concerned about faulty/fake COVID-19 vaccines
  Agreee 539 (60.3) 188 (61) 351 (59.9) 0.953 (0.719-1.264) 0.740
  Disagreef 355 (39.7) 120 (39) 235 (40.1) Reference    
Cues to action
I will only take the COVID-19 vaccine if I am given adequate information about it
  Agreee 601 (67.2) 176 (57.1) 425 (72.5) 1.98 (1.482-2.645) <0.001 1.273 (0.787-2.058) 0.325
  Disagreef 293 (32.8) 132 (42.9) 161 (27.5) Reference   Reference  
I will only take the COVID-19 vaccine if the vaccine is taken by many in the public
  Agreee 505 (56.5) 144 (46.8) 361 (61.6) 1.827 (1.382-2.415) <0.001 0.878 (0.571-1.35) 0.553
  Disagreef 389 (43.5) 164 (53.2) 225 (38.4) Reference   Reference  
  1. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, aOR Adjusted Odds Ratios, BDT Bangladeshi Taka
  2. aDefinitely yes/ probably yes
  3. bDefinitely no/ probably no/ not sure
  4. cVery severe/ severe
  5. dVery little/ little/ fair
  6. eStrongly agree/ agree
  7. fStrongly disagree/ disagree/ not sure