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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the study population and the results of the univariate and multiple generalized linear mixed models analyses, n = 886

From: A multicentre interventional study to assess blood-borne viral infections in Belgian prisons

   Univariate Multivariate
Characteristics n (%) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value AOR (95%CI)
Birth year (mean ± IQR) 1981 ± 1974–1990 0.161 1.0 (1.0–1.0)   
Gender Male 825 (93.1)   ref   
Female 61 (6.9) 0.487 0.6 (0.1–2.1)   
Site of inclusion Pre-trial detention 229 (33.7) 0.552 1.3 (0.5–3.8)   
Long term detention 587 (66.3)   ref   
Country of birth Belgium 612 (69.1)   ref   
Other 271 (30.6) 0.022 0.4 (0.1–0.8)   
Low-moderate HCV prevalence 224 (82.7)     
Moderate-high HCV prevalence 47 (17.3)     
Missing 3 (0.3)     
Incarcerated before Yes 566 (63.9) 0.004 3.4 (1.6–8.4)   
No 316 (35.7)   ref   
Missing 4 (0.5)   
Ever lived together with a person having HCV/HBV/HIV Yes 52 (5.9) < 0.001 11.7 (5.5–24.4) 0.011 5.6 (1.5–22.4)
No 834 (94.1)   ref   ref
Sexual preference Heterosexual 826 (93.2)   ref   
Homosexual 18 (2.0) 0.971 1.0 (0.1–5.5)   
Bisexual 26 (2.9) 0.472 1.7 (0.3–6.4)   
Missing 16 (1.8)   
Number of partners with whom there have ever been unsafe sexual contacts (n = 611) 1–4 265 (43.4) ref ref   ref
5–9 129 (21.1) 0.563 1.4 (0.4–4.4) 0.440 2.0 (0.3–12.4)
> 10 217 (35.5) 0.017 3.0 (1.3–7.5) 0.031 4.6 (1.3–21.8)
Tattoo None 450 (50.8)   ref   
Safe 237 (26.7) 0.038 2.3 (1.0–5.3)   
Potentially non-sterile 199 (22.5) 0.003 4.1 (1.9–9.0)   
Age first drug use non-IDU (mean ± IQR) 17.5 ±
14–18
0.556 1.0 (0.9–1.0)   
Used drugs last 6 m (n = 633) Yes 435 (68.7) 0.113 1.9 (0.9–4.3)   
No 198 (31.3)   ref   
Frequency use (n = 435) Less than once a week 132 (30.3)   ref   
More than once a week 169 (38.9) 0.555 0.8 (0.3–1.9)   
Daily 133 (30.6) 0.991 1.0 (0.4–2.4)   
Missing 1 (0.2)     
Used heroin last 6 months Yes 44 (10.6) < 0.001 11.0 (4.9–26.4) < 0.001 9.3 (2.6–37.6)
No 370 (89.4)   ref   ref
Ever IDU (n = 633) Yes 129 (20.4) < 0.001 38.0 (15.9–107.2) < 0.001 24.6 (5.5–215.2)
No 503 (79.5)   ref   ref
Missing 1 (0.1)   
Ever shared materials for IDU (n = 129) Yes 54 (41.9) < 0.001 56.3 (22.5–170.1)   
No 75 (58.1)   ref   
Frequency IDU last 6 m (n = 129) Never 98 (76.0)   ref   
Less than once a week 9 (7.0) 0.001 13.4 (2.5–62.2)   
More than once a week 10 (7.8) 0.024 6.9 (1.0–34.0)   
Daily 12 (9.2) < 0.001 53.8 (14.1–251.2)   
  1. Note: ‘unsafe’ refers to sexual contact without the use of a condom
  2. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, IQR interquartile range, HCV hepatitis C virus, HBV hepatitis B virus, IDU injecting drug use