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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted analyses of factors associated with viral suppression and ART adherence among people living with HIV on ART

From: Assessing the impact of HIV support groups on antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in the African cohort study

  Viral suppression ART adherence
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Support group attendance
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
Study site
 Kayunga, Uganda Ref Ref
 South Rift Valley, Kenya 0.96 (0.95–0.98) 0.96 (0.94–0.99) 1.17 (1.13–1.20) 1.14 (1.10–1.18)
 Kisumu West, Kenya 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 1.10 (1.06–1.14) 1.09 (1.09–1.05)
 Mbeya, Tanzania 0.88 (0.86–0.91) 0.90 (0.87–0.93) 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 1.06 (1.02–1.11)
 Abuja & Lagos Nigeria 0.91 (0.87–0.94) 0.90 (0.86–0.94) 0.88 (0.83–0.94) 0.88 (0.82–0.94)
Age (years)
 18–29 Ref Ref
 30–39 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 1.03 (1.00–1.06)
 40–49 1.07 (1.04–1.09) 1.06 (1.03–1.08) 1.07 (1.04–1.11) 1.06 (1.03–1.10)
 50+ 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 1.08 (1.05–1.12) 1.06 (1.02–1.09)
Sex
 Male Ref Ref
 Female 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Education
 None or some primary Ref Ref
 Primary or some secondary 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 1.01 (1.00–1.03)
 Secondary and above 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Currently employed
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 1.00 (0.98–1.01)
Marital status
 Not married Ref Ref
 Married 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.00 (0.99–1.02)
Consume alcohol
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.88 (0.85–0.91) 0.89 (0.86–0.92)
ART treatment supporter
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 1.01 (.099–1.02)
WHO stage at time of HIV diagnosis
 I Ref Ref
 II 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 1.00 (0.98–1.03)
 III 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.96 (0.94–0.99) 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 1.02 (1.00–1.04)
 IV 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 1.08 (1.04–1.12) 1.06 (1.02–1.10)
 Unknown 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 1.04 (0.99–1.09)
Duration on ART
  < 6 months Ref Ref
 6 months to < 2 years 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 1.08 (1.05–1.11) 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.98 (0.95–1.00)
 2 to < 4 years 1.10 (1.07–1.14) 1.08 (1.05–1.11) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.99 (0.96–1.02)
 4+ years 1.11 (1.07–1.14) 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
ART regimen
 AZT/NVP/3TC 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.98 (0.95–1.00)
 AZT/EFV/3TC 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.98 (0.94–1.01) 0.97 (0.94–1.01)
 TDF/NVP/3TC 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 1.00 (0.97–1.03)
 PI-based 1.29 (1.24–1.34) 1.27 (1.22–1.32) 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 1.03 (1.00–1.06)
 TLE 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
 Other Ref Ref
  1. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the impact of self-reported support group attendance on ART adherence and viral suppression. Statistically significant ORs and 95% CI are in bold
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval