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Table 2 Select associations between sociodemographic and economic predictors and COVID-19 incidence by time period

From: Time-varying associations between COVID-19 case incidence and community-level sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility risk factors in Massachusetts

Variablec Incidence rate ratio (95% CI)a
Time 1b Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Time 5
% Age > 80 1.04 (1.02–1.07) 1.14 (1.12–1.16) 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 1.03 (1.00–1.05)
% Black 1.12 (1.12–1.13) 1.10 (1.09–1.1) 1.06 (1.04–1.07) 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.01 (1.00–1.01)
% Hispanic/Latinx 1.19 (1.18–1.21) 1.13 (1.12–1.14) 1.15 (1.13–1.17) 1.07 (1.06–1.09) 1.14 (1.13–1.15)
% No health insurance 0.85 (0.84–0.87) 1.09 (1.08–1.11) 1.14 (1.09–1.18) 1.21 (1.18–1.25) 1.06 (1.04–1.08)
% Essential services 1.30 (1.27–1.33) 1.21 (1.19–1.23) 1.20 (1.15–1.25) 1.24 (1.2–1.28) 1.20 (1.17–1.22)
LTCF beds per capita 1.28 (1.26–1.31) 1.23 (1.21–1.24) 1.09 (1.05–1.13) 1.10 (1.07–1.13) 1.07 (1.05–1.09)
Population (20 km) 1.21 (1.19–1.23) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 1.01 (0.98–1.05) 1.23 (1.2–1.26) 0.98 (0.96–1)
% Undergraduates 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.96 (0.93–1) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 1.06 (1.04–1.07)
  1. a Odds ratios generated through mixed-effect multivariable Poisson regression. Models were adjusted for all other covariates presented here
  2. b Dates for study periods: Time 1: before April 14; Time 2: April 15 – June 3; Time 3: June 4 – July 15; Time 4: July 16 – September 2; Time 5: September 3 – October 29
  3. c Variables reflect percent of the town population by given characteristic, so percent of town population > 80 years or the percent of the town population Black/African American, for example. Data generated from the 2014–2018 American Community Survey21