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Table 7 Odds ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals were obtained from the results of the XGBoost model

From: Factors associated with death in confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the state of Rio de Janeiro

Predictor variable and reference category Category of interest Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Sex (reference: female) Male 1.029 (1.012; 1.046) 0,001
Race/color (reference: white) Asian 0.935 (0.899; 0.973) 0,001
Indigenous 1.029 (0.857; 1.236) 0,772
Brown 1.032 (0.996; 1.069) 0,081
Black 1.033 (1.012; 1.054) 0,002
Missing 1.078 (1.054; 1.102) 0,000
Respiratory diseases (reference: absence) Presence 0.982 (0.932; 1.033) 0,499
Missing 0.657 (0.539; 0.800) 0,000
Kidney diseases (reference: absence) Presence 1.011 (0.928; 1.102) 0,815
Missing 1.336 (1.300; 1.373) 0,000
Diabetes (reference: absence) Presence 1.176 (1.137; 1.218) 0,000
Missing 1.021 (0.992; 1.051) 0,159
Heart diseases (reference: absence) Presence 1.073 (1.045; 1.103) 0,000
Missing 1.006 (0.975; 1.037) 0,717
Immunodeficiency/Immunosuppression (reference: absence) Presence 1.007 (0.930; 1.091) 0,874
Missing 1.685 (1.639; 1.732) 0,000
Age (reference: 0 to 9 years) 10–19 years 1.004 (0.934; 1.078) 0,920
20–29 years 1.011 (0.953; 1.073) 0,731
30–39 years 1.061 (1.001; 1.124) 0,045
40–49 years 1.116 (1.053; 1.183) 0,000
50–59 years 1.285 (1.212; 1.363) 0,000
60–69 years 1.585 (1.491; 1.684) 0,000
70–79 years 1.811 (1.697; 1.933) 0,000
80 years or older 1.869 (1.744; 2.002) 0,000
Dyspnea (reference: absence) Presence 1.309 (1.283; 1.336) 0,000
Missing 1.411 (1.313; 1.516) 0,000
Cough (reference: absence) Presence 1.006 (0.989; 1.022) 0,485
Missing 1.411 (1.313; 1.516) 0,000
Fever (reference: absence) Presence 1.029 (1.011; 1.046) 0,001
Missing 1.019 (0.951; 1.092) 0,606
Headache (reference: absence) Presence 0.909 (0.888; 0.931) 0,000
Missing 0.976 (0.911; 1.045) 0,498
Sneezing (reference: absence) Presence 1.000 (0.905; 1.106) 1.000
Missing 1.000 (0.934; 1.071) 1.000
Odynophagia (reference: absence) Presence 0.933 (0.913; 0.954) 0,000
Missing 0.985 (0.919; 1.055) 0,681
Muscle pain (reference: absence) Presence 0.964 (0.938; 0.992) 0,010
Missing 0.985 (0.919; 1.055) 0,681
Diarrhea (reference: absence) Presence 0.954 (0.920; 0.989) 0,011
Missing 0.990 (0.924; 1.060) 0,787
Loss of smell (reference: absence) Presence 0.913 (0.887; 0.939) 0,000
Missing 0.959 (0.896; 1.027) 0,231
Loss of taste (reference: absence) Presence 0.976 (0.944; 1.010) 0,159
Missing 0.989 (0.923; 1.059) 0,765
Runny nose (reference: absence) Presence 0.955 (0.926; 0.985) 0,004
Missing 0.983 (0.918; 1.053) 0,637
Region of residence (reference: Northwest Fluminense) Central-South Fluminense Region 0.955 (0.893; 1.023) 0,185
Costa Verde Region 0.941 (0.883; 1.004) 0,063
Coastal Lowlands Region 0.944 (0.893; 0.999) 0,044
Middle Paraíba Region 1.000 (0.946; 1.056) 1000
Metropolitan Region I - Capital 1.322 (1.263; 1.384) 0,000
Metropolitan Region I - Without Capital 1.269 (1.209; 1.332) 0,000
Metropolitan Region II 1.113 (1.060; 1.169) 0,000
North Fluminense Region 0.984 (0.933; 1.038) 0,565
Mountain Region 0.962 (0.909; 1.018) 0,181
Missing 0.942 (0.739; 1.201) 0,642
  1. Note: confirmed cases of COVID-19, state of Rio de Janeiro, March–September 2020