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Table 3 Reported gonorrhoea prevalence and/or test positivity in sex workers, by WHO region and country

From: Gonorrhoea: a systematic review of prevalence reporting globally

WHO region Country No. of data points Reference Years reported Study settinga No. tested Reported prevalence and/or test positivity Standardized estimate
WOMEN
 Africa Benin 1 Behanzin et al. [151] 2008 Clinic setting 1082 6.20% 5.53%
Botswana 1 Merrigan et al. [152] 2012 Community-based or other mixed locations 947 10.50% 10.86%
Cote d'Ivoire 1 Vuylsteke et al. [153] 2007 and 2009 Clinic setting 1110 5.10% 4.40%
Ethiopia 1 Tadele et al. [154] 2017 Clinic setting 338 3.30% 4.13%
Guinea 1 Aho et al. [155] 2005–2006 Clinic setting 223 9.00% 8.40%
Kenya 1 Izulla et al. [156] 2009–2010 Clinic setting 2933 3.07% 3.84%
Rwanda 2 Braunstein et al. [157] 2006–2007 Clinic setting 397 11.60% 11.06%
   Jespers et al. [26] 2010–2011 Community-based or other mixed locations 30b 7.00% 6.35%
Uganda 1 Vandepitte et al. [158] 2008–2009 Community-based or other mixed locations 1025 13.00% 12.49%
 Americas (excluding high-income North America) Guatemala 1 Sabido et al. [159] 2008–2009 Commercial site 494 0.80% 0.83%
Honduras 1 Tinajeros et al. [160] 2006–2008 Community-based or other mixed locations 950 2.30% 1.54%
Mexico 1 Bazzi et al. [161] 2010–2013 Community-based or other mixed locations 212 0.94% 0.98%
Peru 1 Carcamo et al. [17] 2002 Commercial site 4263 1.62% 1.25%
 Eastern Mediterranean Iran 2 Kazerooni et al. [162] 2010 Community-based or other mixed locations 278 1.43% 1.79%
   Nasirian et al. [163] 2013–2014 Community-based or other mixed locations 99b 9.09% 8.49%
Pakistan 1 Khan et al. [164] 2007 Commercial site 730 7.50% 6.86%
Tunisiac 1 Znazen et al. [165] 2007 Clinic setting 188 3.72% 4.66%
  1 Znazen et al. [165] 2007 Clinic setting 188 11.17% 10.62%
 Europe UK 1 Mc Grath-Lone et al. [166] 2011 Clinic setting 2534 2.70% 1.95%
 South-East Asia Bangladesh 2 Haseen et al. [167] 2006–2007 Commercial site 1013 2.20% 2.27%
   Khanam et al. [168] 2014 Commercial site 700 5.40% 4.71%
India 2 Das et al. [169] 2008–2008 Clinic setting 417 14.20% 13.72%
   Hemalatha et al. [170] 2005–2006 Community-based or other mixed locations 3223 1.99% 2.05%
Indonesia 5 Bollen et al. [171] 2008–2009 Clinic setting 580 29.31% 29.19%
   Majid et al. [172] 2006–2007 Commercial site 4324 24.60% 24.37%
   Mawu et al. [173] 2008 Commercial site 217 10.60% 10.03%
   Silitonga et al. [174] 1997–2002 Clinic setting 3073 16.69% 20.88%
   Tanudyaya et al. [175] 2005 Community-based or other mixed locations 2500 28.60% 28.46%
 Western Pacific Cambodia 1 Couture et al. [176] 2007–2008 Community-based or other mixed locations 160 7.80% 8.06%
China 9 Chen et al. [177] 2009 Commercial site 3099 5.91% 5.23%
   Guo et al. [178] 2010–2011 Community-based or other mixed locations 609 2.30% 1.54%
   Jin et al. [179] 2008 Commercial site 568 8.30% 7.68%
   Luo et al. [180] 2009–2012 Commercial site 2053 8.00% 7.37%
   Remis et al. [181] 2009 Commercial site 750 3.50% 3.62%
   Tang et al. [182] 2009 Commercial site 849 5.42% 4.73%
   Wong et al. [183] 2007 Clinic setting 503 1.79% 1.01%
   Wong et al. [184] 2012–2013 Community-based or other mixed locations 340 0.90% 0.93%
   Zhu et al. [185] 2007 Commercial site 488 1.84% 1.06%
MEN
 Africa Cote d'Ivoire 1 Vuylsteke et al. [186] 2007–2008 Clinic setting 96b 12.80% 11.75%
 Americas (excluding high-income North America) Mexico 2 Bazzi et al. [161] 2010–2013 Community-based or other mixed locations 212d 1.42% 1.54%
   Galarraga et al. [187] ·· Clinic setting 267 2.26% 2.53%
 Europe UK 1 Mc Grath-Lone et al. [166] 2011 Clinic setting 447 17.40%e 16.33%
 Western Pacific Korea (Rep. of) 1 Jung et al. [146] 2008 Community-based or other mixed locations 118 0.00% 0.01%
Vietnam 1 Goldsamt et al. [188] 2014–2016 Community-based or other mixed locations 995 10.45% 9.41%
  1. aClinic settings included STI clinics, genito-urinary clinics and outreach clinics. Commercial sites included hotels, brothels, street and other residences. The remainder were community-based or conducted at other mixed locations, or the location was not specified.
  2. If the standardized estimate was a negative number, the standardized prevalence was reported at 1 case divided by 100 times the sample size [11].
  3. If the clinical specimen was specified but not the laboratory test used, or vice versa, the arithmetic mean of the sensitivity and specificity for the laboratory test or for the clinical specimen, respectively, was used instead [17].
  4. bGiven the rarity of data, this study was included despite a sample size of <100.
  5. cIn this study, two separate estimates were generated in the same population – 188 participants were tested by culture and the same 188 participants by NAAT.
  6. dMen included in this study are non-commercial, intimate partners of female sex workers.
  7. eThis is a period prevalence, defined as the proportion of individuals tested for a sexually transmitted infection in 2011 who experienced an episode of that infection.
  8. ··=Not reported. NAAT=nucleic acid amplification test. No=number. UK=United Kingdom. WHO=World Health Organization.