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Table 2 Reported gonorrhoea test positivity in women and men by WHO region and country

From: Gonorrhoea: a systematic review of prevalence reporting globally

WHO region Country No. of data points Reference Years reported Study populationa Study setting Sampling No. tested Reported test positivity Standardized estimate
WOMEN
 Africa Proxy general population samples
Ethiopia 2 Mulu et al. [23] 2013 Clinic attendees, Women Hospital, multiple clinic types Simple random 409 1.00% 1.25%
   Tadesse et al. [24] 2014–2015 Ob/Gyn clinic attendees Mixed attendees Non-probability 322 0.31% 0.39%
Ghana 1 Yirenya-Tawiah et al. [25] 2005–2006 Community, Sexually active, Women Community-based recruitment Non-probability 191 2.60% 2.05%
Kenya 4 Jespers et al. [26] 2010–2011 Clinic attendees, Women Multiple clinic types + community Non-probability 110 1.00% 0.20%
   Kerubo et al. [27] 2013 Students/young, Women High school Non-probability 511 0.59% 0.24%
   Masese et al. [28] 2014–2015 Students/young, Women High schools + universities Non-probability 451 1.55% 1.60%
   Otieno et al. [29] 2007–2009 Community, Women Community-based recruitment Non-probability 424 4.70% 3.99%
Mozambique 1 Menendez et al. [30] 2000 Mixed groups/Unknown, Women Mixed clinic types + community Age-stratified 250 13.60% 18.90%
South Africa 3 Jespers et al. [26] 2010–2011 Clinic attendees, Women Multiple clinic types + community Non-probability 109 1.00% 0.20%
   Kaida et al. [31] 2014–2016 Community, Women Community-based recruitment Non-probability 198 7.07% 6.42%
   Peters et al. [32] 2011–2012 Community, Women Primary care centres Geographic stratification 604 10.00% 10.46%
Uganda 2 Rassjo et al. [33] 2006 Students/young, Sexually active women Youth clinic Non-probability 595 4.50% 3.79%
   Rutherford et al. [34] 2008–2009 Students/young, Sexually active women University students Non-probability 280 1.07% 0.69%
During pregnancy
Botswana 2 Offorjebe et al. [35] 2015–2016 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 300 1.70% 0.92%
   Wynn et al. [36] 2015–2016 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 200 1.50% 0.72%
Kenya 2 Masha et al. [37] 2015 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 202 1.00% 1.09%
   Warr et al. [38] 2011–2013 ANC Survey ANC, HIV negative women Non-probability 1221 2.00% 1.36%
Sudan 2 Abdelaziz et al. [39] 2008 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 200 1.80% 2.25%
   Abdelrahim et al. [40] ·· ANC Routine screening Pregnant women, low socioeconomic status Non-probability 350 0.00% 0.00%
Tanzania 2 Chiduo et al. [41] 2008–2010 ANC Routine screening ANC Non-probability 185 1.62% 2.03%
   Hokororo et al. [42] 2012 ANC Survey ANC, adolescent girls Non-probability 403 6.70% 7.69%
Zambia 1 Chaponda et al. [43] 2013–2014 ANC Survey First time attendees Non-probability 1083 3.14% 2.66%
 Americas (excluding high-income North America) Proxy general population samples
Brazil 3 Piazzetta et al. [44] ·· Students/young, Sexually active women University students (secondary analysis) Non-probability 335 2.39% 2.47%
   Pinto et al. [45] 2009 Clinic attendees, Women Parturient women, national sample Non-probability 2071 1.00% 1.09%
   Rocha et al. [46] 2010 Community, Women Primary healthcare Non-probability 361 1.40% 0.68%
Chile 2 Conejero et al. [47] 2011 Students/young, Sexually active women University gynaecology clinic Non-probability 344 0.00% 0.00%
   Huneeus et al. [48] ·· Community, Sexually active, Women Community adolescent health clinics Non-probability 115 0.87% 0.07%
Colombia 1 Paredes et al. [49] 2011 Students/young, Women High schools Non-probability 436 0.20% 0.22%
Haiti 1 Jobe et al. [50] 2012 Clinic attendees, Women Women's health clinic Non-probability 104 0.96% 0.18%
Mexico 1 Casillas-Vega et al. [51] 2013–2014 Ob/Gyn clinic attendees Gynaecology clinic, first time attendees Non-probability 662 2.11% 1.34%
During pregnancy          
Brazil 1 Silveira et al. [52] 2005–2008 Clinic attendees, Women Maternity unit, women singleton newborns Non-probability 2101 1.14% 0.76%
Haiti 1 Bristow et al. [53] 2015–2016 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 300 2.67% 1.91%
 Eastern Mediterranean During pregnancy
Iran   Pourabbas et al. [54] ·· Clinic attendees, Women Maternity unit Non-probability 239 1.26% 0.49%
 Europe Proxy general population samples
Ireland 1 Hassan et al. [55] ·· Community, Women Women attending primary care for cervical screening Non-probability 236 0.00% 0.00%
Italy 2 Matteelli et al. [56] 2012–2013 Students/young, Women High school Non-probability 1606 0.00% 0.00%
   Salfa et al. [57] 2009–2013 Mixed groups/Unknown, Women Lab reports from tests at multiple healthcare providers including screening tests Geographic stratification 40 579 0.1% 0.1%
Sweden 1 Nolskog et al. [58] 2013–2014 Students/young, Women Youth clinics Systematic 509 0.00% 0.00%
Switzerland 1 Sakem et al. [59] 2009–2010 Mixed groups/Unknown, Women Laboratory samples including screening programmes National laboratory database 8009 0.14% 0.00%
UK 1 Grech et al. [60] 2014–2015 Clinic attendees, Women Integrated sexual health service, women >40 years Systematic 150 0.70% 0.01%
During pregnancy
France 1 Peuchant et al. [61] 2011 ANC Routine screening ANC Non-probability 1004 0.00% 0.00%
Portugal 1 Borges-Costa et al. [62] 2006–2008 Clinic attendees, Women Pregnant adolescents attending obstetric hospital clinic Non-probability 204 4.90% 4.90%
 High-income North America Proxy general population samples
USA 4 CDC (National Job Training Program) [63] 2018 Community, women National Job Training Program for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth Non-probability ·· 2.2%b 2.2%b
   Jackson et al. [64] 2009–2010 Clinic attendees, Women Chart review of women > 25 years screened according to guidelines in Baltimore Non-probability sample of consecutive attendees 658 0.30% 0.00%
   Newbern et al. [65] 2003–2010 Students/young women Participants in Philadelphia high school STI screening programme Non-probability 36 263 9.00%c 9.32%c
   Nsuami et al. [66] 2003–2005 Students/young women Participants in New Orleans high school STI screening programme Non-probability 1554 ·· (2.4% for men and women combined)d ·· (2.4% for men and women combined)d
During pregnancy
USA 4 Akoh et al. [67] 2006–2009 ANC Survey Adolescent maternal programme Stratified by ethnicity/race 158 3.00% 3.00%
   Berggren et al. [68] 2003–2005 ANC Survey Washington Hospital Center Non-probability 125 10.00% 10.00%
   Blatt et al. [69] 2005–2008 Pregnant women, Community Laboratory results from pregnant women Database study 730 796 0.63% 0.63%
   Waight et al. [70] 2007–2009 Mixed groups/Unknown, Women STD diagnoses linked to birth records Database study 195 977 1.55% 1.55%
 South-East Asia Proxy general population samples
India 1 Krishnan et al .[71] Not stated Community, Women Samples collected during household visits Non-probability 811 0.00% 0.00%
During pregnancy
Thailand 1 Asavapiriyanont et al. [72] 2006–2007 ANC Survey Pregnant teenagers Non-probability 121 1.70% 1.76%
 Western Pacific Proxy general population samples
Korea (Rep. of) 2 Choe et al. [73] 2010 Community, Women General population health examination centres Non-probability 805 0.25% 0.26%
   Kim et al. [74] 2012 Community, Sexually active, Women Hospital clinics, health women attending for checkups Non-probability 799 0.00% 0.00%
Papua New Guinea 1 Vallely et al. [75] 2011–2015 Community, Women Well woman clinic only Non-probability 614 7.98% 8.17%
Solomon Islands 1 Marks et al. [76] 2014 Clinic attendees, Women Community outpatient clinics Non-probability 296 5.10% 4.40%
During pregnancy
New Zealand 1 Ekeroma et al. [77] 2009 ANC Routine screening Hospital maternity unit Non-probability 4635 0.22% 0.20%
Papua New Guinea 3 Badman et al. [78] 2014 ANC Routine screening Women at first antenatal visit Non-probability 125 11.20% 10.65%
   Vallely et al. [75] 2011–2015 ANC Survey ANC Non-probabilitynon-probability 765 14.20% 15.24%
   Wangnapi et al. [79] 2011–2012 ANC Survey ANC Non-probability 362 9.67% 9.08%
MEN
 Africa Kenya 1 Otieno et al. [29] 2007–2009 Community, Sexually active, Men Community-based recruitment Non-probability 422 0.00% 0.00%
South Africa 1 Kaida et al. [31] 2014–2016 Community, Men Community-based recruitment Non-probability 154 1.30% 1.40%
Uganda 1 Rutherford et al. [34] 2008–2009 Students/young, Men University students Non-probability 360 0.00% 0.00%
 Americas (excluding high-income North America) Chile 1 Huneeus et al. [48] ·· Community, Sexually active, Men Community adolescent health clinics Non-probability 171 0.00% 0.00%
Colombia 1 Paredes et al. [49] 2011 Students/young, Men High schools Non-probability 536 0.00% 0.00%
Haiti 1 Downey et al. [80] 2013 Clinic attendees, Men Men's health clinic Non-probability 205 0.00% 0.00%
 Europe Italy 2 Matteelli et al. [56] 2012–2013 Students/young, Men High school Non-probability 1112 0.00% 0.00%
   Salfa et al. [57] 2009–2013 Mixed groups/Unknown, Men Lab reports from tests at multiple healthcare providers Geographic stratification 10 243 2.10% 2.10%
Sweden 1 Nolskog et al. [58] 2013–2014 Students/young, Men Youth clinics Systematic 492 0.20% 0.12%
Switzerland 1 Sakem et al. [59] 2009–2010 Mixed groups/Unknown, Men Laboratory samples incl. screening programmes National laboratory database 1236 2.10% 1.82%
 High-income North America USA 4 CDC (National Job Training Program) [63] 2018 Community, Men National Job Training Program for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth Non-probability ·· 0.7%b 0.7%b
   Drinkard et al. [81] 2009–2015 Students/young, Men College health clinics Database study 5453 0.70% 0.22%
   Newbern et al. [65] 2003–2010 Students/young men Participants in Philadelphia high school STI screening programme Non-probability 39 010 4.07%c 4.65%c
   Nsuami et al. [66] 2003–2005 Students/young men Participants in New Orleans high school STI screening programme Non-probability sample of participants 1782 ·· (2.4% for men and women combined)d ·· (2.4% for men and women combined)d
 South-East Asia India 1 Dave et al. [82] 2005 Workers, Men Migrant workers Multistage probability 840 0.90% 0.94%
Thailand 1 Jatapai et al. [83] 2008–2009 Military, Men Newly inducted military conscripts Systematic 2123 0.94% 1.04%
 Western Pacific China 1 Zhang et al. [84] 2006 Workers, Men Miners Cluster 1773 0.81% 0.81%
Korea (Rep. of) 1 Choe et al. [73] 2010 Clinic attendees, Men General population health examination centres Non-probability 807 0.62% 0.61%
  1. aTo aid cross-referencing, study populations were categorized to align with SPECTRUM codes [11].
  2. If the standardized estimate was a negative number, the standardized prevalence was reported at 1 case divided by 100 times the sample size [11].
  3. If neither the clinical specimen nor the laboratory test used were specified, the estimate was not standardized [57, 62, 63, 67,68,69,70, 84].
  4. If the clinical specimen was specified but not the laboratory test used, or vice versa, the arithmetic mean of the sensitivity and specificity for the laboratory test or for the clinical specimen, respectively, was used instead [27, 34, 52, 59, 80, 81].
  5. bThe denominator was not reported and estimates were not standardized.
  6. cPrevalence was reported over an 8-year period.
  7. dPrevalence proportion for men and women was not reported separately.
  8. ··=Not reported. ANC=antenatal clinic. CDC=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV=human immunodeficiency virus. No.=number. Ob/Gyn=Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Rep.=Republic. STD=sexually transmitted disease. STI=sexually transmitted infection. UK=United Kingdom. USA=Unites States of America. WHO=World Health Organization.