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Table 2 Number (n) and percentage (%) of study variables amongst the study population by VIA status

From: Association between cervical dysplasia and female genital schistosomiasis diagnosed by genital PCR in Zambian women

   n (%) n (%) VIA+ Crude OR VIA+ 95% CI P-value
FGS by PCR n = 237 Positive 14 (5.9) 4 (28.6) 4.06 1.15–14.38 0.044
Negative 223 (94.1) 20 (9.0) 1  
Visual FGS n = 216a Positive 70 (29.5) 5 (7.1) 0.63 0.22–1.79 0.364
Negative 146 (61.6) 16 (11.0) 1  
CAA n = 236b Positive 35 (14.8) 5 (14.3)   0.55–4.62 0.428
Negative 201 (84.8) 19 (9.5) 1  
Urine microscopy n = 237 Positive 15 (6.3) 3 (20.0) 2.39 0.62–9.23 0.237
Negative 222 (93.7) 21 (9.5) 1  
Age n = 237 18–22 64 (27.0) 5 (7.8) 1   0.112
23–26 91 (38.4) 6 (6.6) 0.83 0.24–2.87
27–31 82 (34.6) 13 (15.9) 2.22 0.74–6.68
HIV status n = 235c Positive 56 (23.8) 8 (14.3) 1.7 0.68–4.23 0.265
Negative 179 (76.2) 16 (8.9) 1  
District n = 237 Community A 142 (59.9) 15 (10.6) 1   0.785
Community B 95 (40.1) 9 (9.5) 0.89 0.37–2.12
Education n = 237 None or primary 74 (31.2) 11 (14.9) 1   0.113
Secondary or higher 163 (68.8) 13 (8.0) 0.5 0.21–1.18
Employment n = 237 Unemployed 163 (68.8) 15 (9.2) 1   0.490
Employed 74 (31.2) 9 (12.2) 1.37 0.57–3.29
Marital status n = 237 Currently single 116 (49.0) 14 (12.1) 1   0.331
Currently married 121 (51.1) 10 (8.3) 0.66 0.28–1.55
Ever pregnant n = 237 Never 36 (15.2) 20 (10.0) 0.88 0.28–2.76 0.834
Yes 201 (84.8) 4 (11.1) 1  
Contraception n = 237 Yes 183 (77.2) 15 (8.2) 1   0.085
No 54 (22.8) 9 (16.7) 2.24 0.91–5.50
Condoms n = 237 Yes 47 (19.8) 6 (12.8) 1.4 0.52–3.75 0.514
No 190 (80.2) 18 (9.5) 1  
Previous bilharzia diagnosis or treatment n = 237 Yes 29 (12.2) 3 (10.3) 1.09 0.30–3.94 0.630
Unsure 10 (4.2) 2 (20.0) 2.36 0.46–12.00
No 198 (83.5) 19 (9.6) 1  
  1. Abbreviations: CAA Circulating anodic antigen, CI Confidence interval, FGS female genital schistosomiasis, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, OR odds ratio, PCR polymerase chain reaction, VIA Visual inspection with acetic acid
  2. a21 with uninterpretable images; bone urine vial arrived to LUMC empty; c2 results missing from HPTN-271 (PopART) database