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Table 3 Summary of identified risk factors for increased risk of mortality in studies using regression models

From: Predictors of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Setting (sample size) Regression model Significant risk factors (effect estimate, 95% CI)
Chen R et al. [4] A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China (1590) Multivariate Cox regression Age ≥ 75 years [HR 7.86, 2.44–25.35], age between 65 and 74 years [HR 3.43, 1.24–9.50], CHD [HR 4.28, 1.14–16.13], cerebrovascular disease [HR 3.10, 1.07–8.94], dyspnea [HR 3.96, 1.42–11.0], PCT > 0.5 ng/mL [HR 8.72, 3.42–22.28], and AST > 40 U/L [HR 2.20, 1.10–6.73]
Chen T et al. (b) [5] Zhongnan Hospital, China (203) Stepwise multivariate logistic regression Male sex [OR 13.8, 1.41–136.1], any comorbidity [OR 16.1, 1.9–133.8], shortness of breath [OR 12.9, 1.8–94.4], and Cr > 105 μmol/L [OR 4.82, 1.16–16.96]
Cheng Y et al. [7] Tongji Hospital, China (701) Multivariate Cox regression adjusted for age, sex, disease severity, WBC, and comorbidities Elevated baseline BUN [HR 4.20, 2.74–6.45], elevated baseline Cr [HR 2.04, 1.32–3.15], Peak Cr > 133 μmol/L [HR 3.09, 1.95–4.87], proteinuria 1+ [HR 2.47, 1.15–5.33], proteinuria 2 + ~ 3+ [HR 6.80, 2.97–15.6], hematuria 1+ [HR 3.05, 1.43–6.49], hematuria 2 + ~ 3+ [HR 8.89, 4.41–17.9], AKI stage 2 [HR 3.53, 1.50–8.27], and AKI stage 3 [HR 4.72, 2.55–8.75]
Du RH et al. [9] Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, China (179) Multivariate logistic regression Age ≥ 65 years [OR 3.765, 1.146–17.394], CCD [OR 2.464, 0.755–8.044], CD3+ CD8+ T cells ≤75/μL [OR 3.982, 1.132–14.060], and hs-cTnI ≥0.05 ng/mL [OR 4.077, 1.166–14.253]
Gao L et al. [10] Hubei General Hospital, China (54) Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for sex and age NT-proBNP [HR 1.323, 1.119–1.563]
Guan WJ et al. [12] A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China (1590) Multivariate Cox regression adjusted for age and smoking status COPD [HR 2.68, 1.42–5.05], diabetes [HR 1.59, 1.03–2.45], hypertension [HR 1.58, 1.07–2.32], malignancy [HR 3.50, 1.60–7.64], one comorbidity [HR 1.79, 1.16–2.77] and ≥ 2 comorbidities [HR 2.59, 1.61–4.17]
Li X et al. [17] Tongji Hospital, China (268) Multivariate Cox regression Male sex [HR 1.72, 1.05–2.82], age ≥ 65 years [HR 1.72, 1.09–2.73], WBC ≥10 × 109/L [HR 2.04, 1.26–3.31], LDH > 445 U/L [HR 2.00, 1.21–3.30], cardiac injury [HR2.92, 1.80–4.76], hyperglycemia [HR 1.77, 1.11–2.84], and high-dose corticosteroids (vs none) [HR 3.5, 1.79–6.86]
Liang WH et al. [18] A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China (1590) Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression Age [HR 1.036, 1.021–1.052], any comorbidity [HR 2.132, 1.393–3.261], and time from symptom onset to hospitalization [HR 1.045, 1.013–1.078]
Liu Y et al. [19] Zhongnan Hospital, China (245) Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking status, respiratory rate, ALT, Cr, PT, and D-dimer Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [OR 1.08, 1.01–1.14]
Luo M et al. [21] Wuhan Tongren Hospital, China (475) Multivariate logistic regression ≥1 comorbidity [OR 29.4, 10.343–83.681] and severe disease [OR 74.364, 15.4–359.712]
Tang N et al. (a) [26] Tongji Hospital, China (449) Multivariate logistic regression Age [OR 1.033, 1.013–1.055], PT [OR 1.107, 1.008–1.215], PLT [0.996, 0.993–0.998], and D-dimer [1.058, 1.028–1.090]
Wang et al. (b) [28] Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China (202) Multivariate Cox regression adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, CKD, COPD, and NT-proBNP Age [HR 1.041, 1.011–1.071], respiratory rate [HR 1.194, 1.113–1.281], and myocardial injury [HR 5.382, 2.404–12.05]
Wang L et al. [29] Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China (339) Multivariate Cox regression Age [HR 1.08, 1.06–1.11], cardiovascular disease [HR 2.87, 1.70–4.83], COPD [HR 3.72, 1.94–7.13], and ARDS [HR 50.7, 24.0–107]
Xie J et al. [31] Union Hospital, China (140) Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age and sex Any comorbidity [HR2.65, 1.07–6.55], SpO2 [HR 0.93, 0.91–0.95], SpO2 ≤ 90% [HR 47.4, 6.29–357.48], dyspnea [HR 2.60, 1.24–5.43], WBC ≥10 × 109/L [HR 2.56, 1.17–5.63], NEU ≥6 × 109/L [HR 4.29, 1.74–10.6], PLT < 150 × 109/L [HR 2.23, 1.01–4.92], and CRP ≥27.8 mg/L [HR 17.0, 2.25–16.0]
Zhang L et al. [37] Wuhan Asia General Hospital, China (343) Multivariate Cox regression adjusted for gender, age, and underlying diseases D-dimer ≥2 μg/mL [HR 22.4, 2.86–175.7]
Zhou F et al. [38] Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, China (191) Multivariate logistic regression Age [OR 1.10, 1.03–1.17], D-dimer > 1 μg/L (vs ≤0.5 μg/L) [OR 18.4, 2.64–128.6], and SOFA score [OR 5.56, 2.61–12.2]
  1. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury, ALT alanine transaminase, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CCD cardio-cerebrovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cr creatinine, CRP C-reactive protein, HR hazard ratio, hs-cTnI hypersensitive cardiac troponin I, LDH lactose dehydrogenase, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, OR odds ratio, PCT procalcitonin, PLT platelet count, PT prothrombin time, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SpO2 oxygen saturation, NEU neutrophil count, WBC white blood cell count