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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

From: Predictors of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Design Setting Recruitment periods a Severity of illness (%) Sample size Female (%) Age (years) c Mortality (%)
Cao J et al. [3] China SC, RS Zhongnan Hospital Jan 3-Feb 1 ICU (17.6) 102 48.0 52.7 (22.6) 16.7
Chen R et al. [4] China MC, RS A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China Dec 11 b-Jan 31 ICU (6.2) 1590 42.7 48.9 (16.3) 3.1
Chen T et al. (a) [5] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Jan13-Feb 12 MI, SI, and CI 274 37.6 58.7 (19.4) 41.2
Chen T et al. (b) [6] China SC, RS Zhongnan Hospital Jan 1-Feb 10 SI (36) and CI (16.7) 203 46.8 54.3 (20.2) 12.8
Cheng Y et al. [7] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Jan28-Feb 11 SI (42.7) 701 47.6 61.3 (15.6) 16.1
Deng Y et al. [8] China MC, RS Tongji Hospital and Central Hospital of Wuhan Jan 1-Feb 21 SI (87.2) 225 44.9 NA 48.4
Du RH et al. [9] China SC, PS Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital Dec 25 b -Feb 7 NA 179 45.8 57.6 (13.7) 11.7
Gao L et al. [10] China SC, RS Hubei General Hospital NA SI (100) 54 55.6 60.4 (16.1) 33.3
Grasselli L et al. [11] Italy MC, RS ICUs in 72 hospitals Feb 20-Mar18 ICU (100) 1591 18.0 63.0 (10.4) 25.5
Guan WJ et al. [12] China MC, RS A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China Dec 11 b -Jan 31 ICU (6.2) 1590 42.7 48.9 (16.3) 3.1
Guo T et al. [13] China SC, RS Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City Jan 23-Feb 23 NA 187 51.3 58.5 (14.7) 23.0
He XW et al. [14] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Feb 3-Feb 24 SI and CI (100) 56 37.0 67.4 (11.0) 46.4
Hu H et al. [15] China SC, RS Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Feb 7-Mar 7 CI (100) 105 49.1 60.8 (16.3) 18.1
Li J et al. [16] China SC, RS Central Hospital of Wuhan Jan 1- Mar 3 NA 658 54.9 55.5 (18.6) 9.7
Li X et al. [17] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Jan 26-Feb 5 SI (100) 268 43.1 63.7 (13.4) 32.5
Liang WH et al. [18] China MC, RS A total of 575 hospitals across mainland China Dec 11 b -Jan 31 ICU (6.2) 1590 42.7 48.9 (16.3) 3.1
Liu Y et al. (a) [19] China SC, RS Zhongnan Hospital Jan 1-Feb 29 NA 245 53.5 53.9 (16.9) 13.5
Liu Y et al. (b) [20] China SC, RS Central Hospital of Wuhan Jan 1-Mar 1 NA 383 57.7 47.0 (20.1) 12.8
Luo M et al. [21] China SC, RS Wuhan Tongren Hospital Jan 17-Feb 25 SI and CI (32.0) 475 51.4 61.7 (14.9) 14.5
Miyashita H et al. [22] USA SC, MC Mount Sinai Health System in New York City Mar 1-Apr 6 NA 5688 NA NA 9.7
Peng YD et al. [23] China SC, RS Union Hospital Jan 20-Feb 15 CI (14.3) 112 52.7 61.3 (9.01) 15.2
Richardson S et al. [24] USA MC, RC A total of 12 hospitals in the USA Mar 1-Apr 4 NA 2634 39.7 63.3 (17.1) 21.0
Shi S et al. [25] China SC, RS Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Jan 20- Feb 10 NA 416 50.7 61.0 (12.5) 13.7
Tang N et al. (a) [26] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Jan 1- Feb 13 SI (100) 449 40.3 65.1 (12.0) 29.8
Tang N et al. (b) [27] China SC, RS Tongji Hospital Jan 1-Feb 3 SI (100) 183 46.4 54.1 (16.2) 11.5
Wang L et al. (a) [28] China SC, RS Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Jan 31-Feb 5 SI and CI (61.9) 202 56.4 61.3 (14.2) 16.3
Wang L et al. (b) [29] China SC, RS Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Jan 1- Feb 6 MI (29.5), SI (46.9), and CI (23.6) 339 51.0 70.0 (8.19) 19.2
Wu C et al. [30] China SC, RS Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital Dec 25 b -Jan 26 ICU (26.4) 201 36.3 51.3 (12.7) 21.9
Xie J et al. [31] China SC, RS Union Hospital Jan 28-Feb 28 MI (30.7), SI (52.1), and CI (17.1) 140 48.6 58.3 (15.7) 25.7
Xu B et al. [32] China SC, RS Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Dec 26 b-Mar 1 SI (24.1), CI (24.1) 187 44.9 60.5 (16.8) 15.0
Yang X et al. (a) [33] China SC, RC Wuhan Jin Yintan hospital Dec b -Feb 25 NA 1476 47.4 57.0 (14.8) 16.1
Yang X et al. (b) [34] China SC, RC Wuhan Jin Yintan hospital Dec 24 b -Jan 26 CI (100) 52 32.7 59.7 (13.3) 61.5
Yao Q et al. [35] China SC, RC Huanggang Central Hospital Jan 30-Feb 11 SI (23.1) 108 60.2 49.0 (15.8) 11.1
Zhang J et al. [36] China SC, RS Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Jan 11-Feb 6 MI (37.8), SI (47.5), and CI (14.2) 663 51.6 56.2 (18.6) 3.77
Zhang L et al. [37] China SC, RC Wuhan Asia General Hospital Jan 12-Mar 15 NA 343 50.7 59.7 (15.6) 3.8
Zhou F et al. [38] China MC, RC Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital Dec 29 b -Jan 31 ICU (26.2), SI (35), and CI (28) 191 37.7 56.3 (15.7) 28.3
  1. Abbreviations: CI critically ill, ICU intensive care unit, MC multicenter, MI moderately ill, NA not available, PS prospective study, RS retrospective study, SI severely ill
  2. a The default year is 2020 unless otherwise noted
  3. b The year is 2019
  4. c Values are expressed as means ± standard deviations. For studies that presented data as medians and interquartile ranges, we calculated the means and standard deviations based on the formulas by Wan et al. [42]