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Table 3 Exploratory data on hospitalization outcomes according to influenza status

From: Influenza in Malaysian adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma: a multicenter, active surveillance study

Variables

Total

(N = 1106)

Influenza positive

(N = 114)

Influenza negative

(N = 992)

Univariate analysis

    

OR (95% CI)

P-value

Adjusted OR (95% CI)a

P-value

No. of days in hospital (n = 1097)

 Mean no. of hospital admission (days)

7.12 ± 8.059

6.89 ± 7.707 (n = 114)

7.15 ± 8.102 (n = 983)

    

 Prolonged hospitalization (≥6 days)

486 (44.3%)

43 (37.7%)

443 (45.1%)

0.736 (0.495–1.100)

0.136

0.766 (0.512–1.146)

0.194

Reason for ICU or HDU admission

 Not known

46 (25%)

3 (20%)

43 (25.4%)

0.218 (1)

0.641

0.805 (0.275–2.359)

0.692

 Known

138 (12.5%)

12 (80%)

126 (74.6%)

    

 Respiratory failure

119 (64.7%)

10 (66.7%)

109 (64.5%)

1.101 (0.360–3.370)

0.866

1.087 (0.348–3.402)

0.886

Septicemic shock

27 (14.7%)

5 (33.3%)

22 (13%)

3.341 (1.044–10.692)

0.042*

3.957 (1.171–13.376)

0.027*

 Respiratory failure and septicemic shock

5 (2.7%)

1 (6.7%)

4 (2.4%)

2.946 (0.308–28.185)

0.348

4.925 (0.448–54.017)

0.192

ICU or HDU admissions

 No

922 (83.4%)

99 (86.8%)

823 (83%)

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Yes

184 (16.6%)

15 (13.2%)

169 (17%)

0.738 (0.418–1.302)

0.294

0.785 (0.443–1.392)

0.408

Death in hospital

 No

1080 (97.6%)

111 (97.4%)

969 (97.7%)

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Yes

26 (2.4%)

3 (2.6%)

23 (2.3%)

1.139 (0.336–3.853)

0.835

1.138 (0.333–3.892)

0.836

Severe outcome (death in hospital or ICU/HDU admission without death)

 No

912 (82.5%)

98 (86%)

814 (82.1%)

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Yes

194 (17.5%)

16 (14%)

178 (17.9%)

0.747 (0.430–1.298)

0.299

0.792 (0.453–1.384)

0.413

  1. aAdjusted for age, gender and presence of comorbidities