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Table 3 Exploratory data on hospitalization outcomes according to influenza status

From: Influenza in Malaysian adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma: a multicenter, active surveillance study

Variables Total
(N = 1106)
Influenza positive
(N = 114)
Influenza negative
(N = 992)
Univariate analysis
     OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI)a P-value
No. of days in hospital (n = 1097)
 Mean no. of hospital admission (days) 7.12 ± 8.059 6.89 ± 7.707 (n = 114) 7.15 ± 8.102 (n = 983)     
 Prolonged hospitalization (≥6 days) 486 (44.3%) 43 (37.7%) 443 (45.1%) 0.736 (0.495–1.100) 0.136 0.766 (0.512–1.146) 0.194
Reason for ICU or HDU admission
 Not known 46 (25%) 3 (20%) 43 (25.4%) 0.218 (1) 0.641 0.805 (0.275–2.359) 0.692
 Known 138 (12.5%) 12 (80%) 126 (74.6%)     
 Respiratory failure 119 (64.7%) 10 (66.7%) 109 (64.5%) 1.101 (0.360–3.370) 0.866 1.087 (0.348–3.402) 0.886
Septicemic shock 27 (14.7%) 5 (33.3%) 22 (13%) 3.341 (1.044–10.692) 0.042* 3.957 (1.171–13.376) 0.027*
 Respiratory failure and septicemic shock 5 (2.7%) 1 (6.7%) 4 (2.4%) 2.946 (0.308–28.185) 0.348 4.925 (0.448–54.017) 0.192
ICU or HDU admissions
 No 922 (83.4%) 99 (86.8%) 823 (83%) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 184 (16.6%) 15 (13.2%) 169 (17%) 0.738 (0.418–1.302) 0.294 0.785 (0.443–1.392) 0.408
Death in hospital
 No 1080 (97.6%) 111 (97.4%) 969 (97.7%) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 26 (2.4%) 3 (2.6%) 23 (2.3%) 1.139 (0.336–3.853) 0.835 1.138 (0.333–3.892) 0.836
Severe outcome (death in hospital or ICU/HDU admission without death)
 No 912 (82.5%) 98 (86%) 814 (82.1%) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 194 (17.5%) 16 (14%) 178 (17.9%) 0.747 (0.430–1.298) 0.299 0.792 (0.453–1.384) 0.413
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender and presence of comorbidities