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Table 2 Risk variables associated with influenza positivity

From: Influenza in Malaysian adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma: a multicenter, active surveillance study

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (CI 95%) P-value OR (CI 95%) P-value
Age
  < 65 years Ref Ref Ref Ref
  ≥ 65 years 1.067 (0.723–1.573) 0.745 1.072 (0.710–1.618) 0.741
Gender
Male Ref Ref Ref Ref
Female 1.533 (1.033–2.274) 0.034* 1.465 (0.982–2.184) 0.061
Smoking status
 Non-smoker Ref Ref   
 Ex-smoker 0.790 (0.475–1.313) 0.363   
 Smoker 0.551 (0.310–0.978) 0.042   
BMI classification (Asian)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) Ref Ref   
 Obese (≥25.0) 1.136 (0.651–1.983) 0.653   
 Underweight (< 18.5) 1.603 (0.737–3.487) 0.234   
Socio-professional category†
 High Ref Ref   
 Middle 0.979 (0.462–2.074) 0.957   
 Low 0.430 (0.152–1.220) 0.430   
 Unemployed/unknown 0.878 (0.489–1.578) 0.664   
 Retired 0.731 (0.355–1.506) 0.731   
Hospitalized within the past 12 months
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.646 (0.415–1.004) 0.050 0.808 (0.507–1.288) 0.370
Consultations within the past 3 months
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.710 (0.462–1.089) 0.115 0.745 (0.483–1.151) 0.185
Diagnosis on admission
AECOPD
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.702 (0.419–1.174) 0.176 1.314 (0.688–2.511) 0.408
AEBA
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 1.062 (0.697–1.618) 0.779   
CAP
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 1.092 (0.689–1.731) 0.708   
Presence of significant comorbidities‡
No Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.480 (0.283–0.815) 0.006* 0.565 (0.329–0.970) 0.038*
Temperature on presentation (≥38 °C)
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 1.415 (0.873–2.292) 0.159   
Systemic symptoms
Fever
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.856 (1.134–3.039) 0.013* 1.544 (0.932–2557) 0.091
Headache
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 0.984 (0.571–1.695) 0.953   
Malaise
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.716 (0.484–1.059) 0.093 1.084 (0.674–1.742) 0.740
Myalgia
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 1.088 (0.646–1.834) 0.750   
Respiratory symptoms
 Cough
  No Ref Ref   
  Yes 0.844 (0.435–1.635) 0.614   
Dyspnea
No Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.472 (0.300–0.742) 0.001* 0.544 (0.341–0.868) 0.011*
Sore throat
 No Ref Ref   
 Yes 0.972 (0.590–1.602) 0.972   
Vaccination within the past 12 months
 No or unclear history Ref Ref   
 Yes 0.554 (0.131–2.344) 0.422   
  1. Bold = variables left in final model
  2. *p-value < 0.05; †Socio-professional categories are defined in Additional file 1; Comorbidities that involve organ dysfunction are considered as significant comorbidities