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Table 1 Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis based on univariable analysis

From: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan: a neglected disease needing one health strategy

Variables Response Case numbers (%) Control numbers (%) OR 95% CI p-value
Age (years) 1–15 46 (51.1) 7 (7.9) Ref   < 0.009*!
15–30 27 (30) 40 (44.4) 0.11 0.03–0.34
30–45 11 (12.2) 29 32.2 0.07 0.02–0.25
45–60 5 (5.6) 12 (13.3) 0.08 0.02–0.35
> 60 1 (1.1) 2 (2.2) 0.02 0.01–3.26
Sex Male 45 (50) 18 (20) 0.25 0.12–0.52 0.0002*
Female 45 (50) 72 (80)
Income (PKRs) 5000–10,000 69 (76.7) 60 (66.7) Ref   0.225
10,000–20,000 16 (17.8) 21 (23.3) 0.64 0.29–1.44
20,000–30,000 4 (4.4) 8 (8.9) 0.46 0.13–1.59
> 30,000 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 0.68 0.37–12.26
Dog in house No 82 (91.1) 83 (92.2) 1.17 0.39–3.47 0.782
Yes 8 (8.9) 7 (7.8)
Other animals on premises No 44 (48.8) 67 (74.4) 3.10 1.57–6.1 0.00114*
Yes 46 (51.1) 23 (25.5)
Poor sanitary conditions No 16 17.8 43 47.8 4.37 2.03–9.43 <.00017*
Yes 74 (80.2) 47 (52.2)
Protection used Yes 15 16.7 26 28.9 0.48 0.22–1.01 0.0535*
No 75 (83.3) 64 (71.1)
House type Concrete 44 (48.9) 57 (63.3) 1.93 1.01–3.68 0.0461*
Mud 46 (51.1) 33 (36.7)
Other CL patients in house No 37 (41.1) 86 (95.6) 50 6.91–361.9 0.000107$
Yes 53 (58.9) 4 (4.4)
Sleeping Outside in open area No 6 (6.7) 62 (68.9) 12.2 4.90–30.36 0.0000056*
Yes 84 (93.3) 28 (31.1)
  1. *Factors selected for multivariable analysis
  2. !p-value bases on likelihood ratio test
  3. $Excluded from analysis due to inadequate discordant pairs