Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants and association with influenza status

From: Evaluating an app-guided self-test for influenza: lessons learned for improving the feasibility of study designs to evaluate self-tests for respiratory viruses

Characteristics N (%) Overall (N = 739) PCR+ (N = 43) PCR- (N = 696) p-value
Demographics
Age
  18 to 24 86 (11.6) 0 (0) 86 (12.4) 0.002
  25 to 34 202 (27.3) 12 (27.9) 190 (27.3)  
  35 to 44 191 (25.8) 19 (44.2) 172 (24.7)  
  45 to 64 203 (27.5) 12 (27.9) 191 (27.4)  
  65 and older 57 (7.7) 0 (0) 57 (8.2)  
Sex (n = 736)
  Female 584 (79.0) 35 (81.4) 549 (78.9) 0.865
  Male 150 (20.3) 8 (18.6) 142 (20.4)  
  Other 2 (0.3) 0 (0) 2 (0.3)  
Race (n = 730)
  White 539 (73.0) 35 (81.4) 504 (72.4) 0.289
  Black 59 (8.0) 1 (2.3) 58 (8.3)  
  Asian 62 (8.4) 2 (4.7) 60 (8.6)  
  Native (American Indian, Alaska Native, native Hawaiian) 6 (0.8) 0 (0) 6 (0.9)  
  Other 30 (4.1) 4 (9.3) 26 (3.7)  
  Mixed race 34 (4.6) 1 (2.3) 33 (4.7)  
Ethnicity (Hispanic or Latino) (n = 733)
  No 654 (88.5) 38 (88.4) 616 (88.5) 1.0
  Yes 79 (10.7) 4 (9.3) 75 (10.8)  
Exposure or Risk Factor
Health Insurance (n = 737)
  Government 252 (34.1) 14 (32.6) 238 (34.2) 0.963
  No Insurance 58 (7.8) 3 (6.9) 55 (7.9)  
  Private 427 (57.8) 26 (60.5) 401 (57.6)  
Received flu shot in the last year (n = 715)
  No 359 (48.6) 21 (48.8) 338 (48.6) 0.977
  Yes 356 (48.2) 22 (51.2) 334 (47.9)  
Currently smokes tobacco (n = 734)
  No 600 (81.2) 39 (90.7) 561 (80.6) 0.172
  Yes 134 (18.1) 4 (9.3) 130 (18.7)  
Currently taking antibiotics or antivirals (n = 729)
  No 608 (82.3) 32 (74.4) 576 (82.5) 0.149
  Yes 121 (16.4) 11 (25.6) 110 (15.8)  
Contact with a person who seemed to have a cold in the past week (n = 734)
  Don’t know 184 (24.9) 9 (20.9) 175 (25.1)  
  No 109 (14.7) 8 (18.6) 101 (14.5) 0.735
  Yes 441 (59.7) 26 (60.5) 415 (59.6)  
If yes to contact with a sick person did they have a cough or sneeze (n = 441)
  Don’t know 15 (3.4) 1 (3.4) 14 (3.4)  
  No 14 (3.2) 3 (11.5) 11 (2.6) 0.039
  Yes 406 (92.0) 21 (80.8) 385 (92.8)  
Current illness interferes with daily activity (n = 737)
  No 230 (31.1) 4 (9.3) 226 (32.5) 0.002
  Yes 507 (68.6) 39 (90.7) 468 (67.2)