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Table 1 Risk factor associate with pyrazinamide resistance among 110 MDR isolates

From: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of pyrazinamide resistance among multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Ningbo, China

Characteristics No.(%) of isolates No.(%) of isolates χ2 P _value
   PZAR PZAS   
  (n = 110) (n = 65) (n = 45)   
Sex
 Male 77 (70.0) 41 (63.1) 36 (80.0) 0.057
 Female 33 (30.0) 24 (36.9) 9 (20.0) 3.626
Age group
 <30 19 (17.3) 9 (13.9) 10 (22.2)
 30–59 61 (55.4) 37 (56.9) 24 (53.3) 1.047 0.306
  ≥ 60 30 (27.3) 19 (29.2) 11 (24.5) 1.211 0.271
Permanent resident
 Yes 58 (52.7) 38 (58.5) 20 (44.5)
 No 52 (47.3) 27 (41.5) 25 (55.5) 2.096 0.148
Treatment history
 New case 45 (40.9) 21 (32.3) 24 (53.3)
 Re-treated 65 (59.1) 44 (67.7) 21 (46.7) 4.863 0.027
Treatment outcome
 Successful 42 (38.2) 19 (29.2) 23 (51.1)
 Poor 68 (61.8) 46 (70.8) 22 (48.9) 5.393 0.020
Cavity
 Yes 65 (59.1) 39 (60.0) 26 (57.8)
 No 45 (40.9) 26 (40.0) 19 (42.2) 0.054 0.816
Initial sputum smear
 Negative 7 (6.4) 6 (9.2) 1 (2.2)
 Positive 103 (93.6) 59 (90.8) 44 (97.8) 2.192 0.279
Genotype
 Non-Beijing family 23 (20.9) 14 (21.5) 9 (20.0)
 Beijing family 87 (79.1) 51 (78.5) 36 (80.0) 0.038 0.845
PncA gene mutation
 Yes 56 (50.9) 54 (83.1) 2 (4.4)  
 No 54 (49.1) 11 (16.9) 43 (95.6) 65.787 0.000
Resistance to
 SM 65 (59.1) 44 (67.7) 21 (46.7) 4.863 0.027
 EMB 52 (47.3) 37 (56.9) 15 (33.3) 5.937 0.015
 OFLX 33 (30.0) 28 (43.1) 5 (11.1) 12.939 0.000
 LVX 33 (30.0) 28 (43.1) 5 (11.1) 12.939 0.000
 KAN 9 (8.2) 6 (9.2) 3 (6.7) 0.233 0.898
 AMK 8 (7.3) 6 (9.2) 2 (4.4) 0.903 0.564
 CAP 4 (3.6) 2 (3.1) 2 (4.4) 0.142 1.000
 PTO 2 (1.8) 1 (1.5) 1 (2.2) 0.070 1.000
 PAS 6 (5.5) 1 (1.5) 5 (11.1) 4.725 0.081
 Pre-XDR 32 (29.1) 25 (38.5) 7 (15.6) 6.764 0.009
 XDR 7 (6.4) 6 (9.2) 1 (2.2) 1.174 0.279
  1. Abbreviations: R, resistant; S susceptible; SM, streptomycin; EMB, ethambutol; OFX, ofloxacin; LFX, levofloxacin; KAN, kanamycin; AMK, amikacin; CAP, capreomycin; PTO, protionamide; PAS, para-amino salicylic acid; Pre-XDR, pre-extensively extensive drug resistance; XDR, extensive drug resistance