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Table 2 Socio-demographic factors, medical history and oral HPV infection among Indian HIV-positive MSM (N = 295)

From: Prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection among Indian HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study

  No Oral HPV infection Oral HPV Infection  
Characteristic N (%) N (%) P-valued OR (95% CI)d
Total N 225 (76) 70 (24)   
Study Site      0.2604  
 CMC, Vellore 117 (79) 31 (21)   1.0
 HT, Mumbai 108 (73) 39 (27)   1.4 (0.8–2.3)
Age Categoriesa      0.5064  
 18–25 33 (79) 9 (21)   1.0
 26–35 92 (79) 24 (21)   1.0 (0.4–2.3)
 35+ 93 (73) 34 (27)   1.3 (0.6–3.1)
Highest number of years of school completed      0.7635  
 None 40 (80) 10 (20)   1.0
 1–10 145 (76) 46 (24)   1.3 (0.6–2.7)
 10+ 40 (74) 14 (26)   1.4 (0.6–3.5)
Monthly income (mean ± SD) 4268 (±4128) 5621 (±6320) 0.0970 1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Religion      0.4865  
 Hindu 175 (75) 58 (25)   1.0
 Muslim 31 (77) 9 (23)   0.9 (0.4–1.9)
 Other 19 (86) 3 (14)   0.5 (0.1–1.7)
Marital Status    .   0.9519  
 Unmarried 118 (76) 37 (24)   1.0
 Married 107 (76) 33 (24)   1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Smoked more than 100 lifetime cigarettes    .   0.5269  
 No 160 (77) 47 (23)   1.0
 Yes 65 (74) 23 (26)   1.2 (0.7–2.1)
Mean years smoked 4 (±8) 4 (±7) 0.8550 1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Chews tobacco ‘regularly’b    .   0.0077  
 No 145 (72) 57 (28)   1.0
 Yes 80 (86) 13 (14)   0.4 (0.2–0.8)
 If Yes: How often chew tobacco on average per week      0.0709  
   < 2 days/week 22 (100) 0 (0)   NE
  3–5 days/week 9 (90) 1 (10)   1.0
  6–7 days/week 49 (80) 12 (20)   7.6 (0.9–61.3)e
Consumes alcohol      0.2531  
 No 95 (73) 35 (27)   1.0
 Yes 130 (79) 35 (21)   0.7 (0.4–1.3)
CD4 (cells/uL)c    .   0.0106  
  < 200 21 (57) 16 (43)   3.1 (1.4–6.9)
 200–500 113 (78) 31 (22)   1.1 (0.6–2.0)
 500+ 89 (80) 22 (20)   1.0
HIV viral loadc    .   0.4570  
 Undetectable 77 (73) 28 (27)   1.0
  > 400–37,400 72 (81) 17 (19)   0.6 (0.3–1.3)
  > 37,400 75 (76) 24 (24)   0.9 (0.5–1.7)
Antiretroviral therapy use      0.2227  
 No 128 (79) 34 (21)   1.0
 Yes 97 (73) 36 (27)   1.4 (0.8–2.4)
  1. a Indicates 1–5% of participant data were missing
  2. b ‘regularly’ was not defined to participants but was translated into Hindi and Tamil, with the back translation of “regularly” or “often”
  3. c Indicates 1–2 individual participant data were missing
  4. d p-value for categorical variable from chi-square, and from ANOVA or ranked ANOVA for normally and non-normally distributed continuous variables. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from unadjusted logistic regression model
  5. e comparison between participants who reported 2–5 days a week and 6–7 days a week. Participants with < 2 days a week were omitted from this calculation