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Table 4 Conditional multivariate logistic regression: Risk factors for community-acquired or healthcare-associated urinary tract infection caused by a resistant bacterium compared with a susceptible one, by gender

From: Antibiotic prescriptions and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in patients hospitalized with urinary tract infection: a matched case-control study using the French health insurance database (SNDS)

  Community-acquired infections Healthcare-associated infectionsa
Men (N = 5420) Women (N = 7792) Men (N = 3388) Women (N = 2614)
  ORa [CI 95%] ORa [CI 95%] ORa [CI 95%] ORa [CI 95%]
Antibiotic consumption
 Number of antibiotic dispensing in the last 3 months
  0 1 1 1 1
  1 1.61 [1.38–1.88] 1.47 [1.31–1.66] 1.30 [1.07–1.57] 1.34 [1.09–1.66]
  2 2.28 [1.85–2.81] 1.69 [1.42–2.00] 1.82 [1.43–2.31] 1.34 [1.01–1.76]
  ≥ 3 3.59 [2.85–4.53] 2.64 [2.18–3.19] 2.94 [2.25–3.83] 1.79 [1.34–2.38]
Urinary tract condition
 Recurrent UTIb
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.21 [1.05–1.40] 1.23 [1.11–1.38] 1.04 [0.87–1.25] 1.15 [0.95–1.38]
 Procedure on UT in the last 3 months
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.34 [1.09–1.64] 1.08 [0.76–.53] 0.86 [0.71–1.04] 1.98 [1.50–2.61]
 Urinary tract disease in the last 12 months
  No    1 1
  Yes    1.25 [1.04–2.55] 0.78 [0.58–1.03]
Prior ICU stay in the last 3 months
 Length of the longest stay in ICU
  No stay, or stay ≤7 days    1 1
  > 7 days    1.76 [1.21–2.55] 1.41 [0.80–2.48]
  1. Abbreviations: ORa adjusted Odds ratio, CI 95 95% confidence interval, UTI urinary tract infection, UT urinary tract, ICU intensive care unit
  2. a Infection with at least one prior hospitalization (any cause except UTI) in the last 3 months
  3. b at least 3 prior episodes of urinary tract infection in the last 12 months