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Table 3 Conditional univariate logistic regression: Risk factors for community-acquired or healthcare-associated urinary tract infection caused by a resistant bacterium compared with a susceptible one, by gender

From: Antibiotic prescriptions and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in patients hospitalized with urinary tract infection: a matched case-control study using the French health insurance database (SNDS)

  Community-acquired infections Healthcare-associated infectionsa
Men (N = 5268) Women (N = 7668) Men (N = 3170) Women (N = 2540)
ORc [CI 95%] ORc [CI 95%] ORc [CI 95%] ORc [CI 95%]
Antibiotic consumption
 Number of antibiotic dispensing in the last 3 months
  0 1 1 1 1
  1 1.77 [1.53–2.05] 1.59 [1.41–1.78] 1.30 [1.09–1.55] 1.44 [1.18–1.77]
  2 2.61 [2.16–3.17] 1.91 [1.63–2.23] 1.83 [1.46–2.28] 1.47 [1.14–1.90]
  ≥ 3 4.26 [3.47–5.24] 3.07 [2.58–3.66] 2.97 [2.33–3.79] 2.05 [1.59–2.64]
Urinary tract condition
 Recurrent UTIb
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 2.04 [1.82–2.29] 1.69 [1.54–1.86] 1.48 [1.27–1.71] 1.45 [1.24–1.70]
 Urinary tract disease in the last 12 months
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.08 [0.84–1.39] 1.15 [0.84–1.57] 1.23 [1.05–1.44] 1.21 [0.96–1.54]
 Procedure on UT in the last 3 months
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.65 [1.36–1.99] 1.33 [0.95–1.86] 1.09 [0.93–1.27] 1.96 [1.55–2.49]
Health context
 Diabetes
  No 1 1 1 1
  On insulin 1.14 [0.79–1.65] 0.95 [0.72–1.26] 1.32 [0.91–1.89] 0.70 [0.44–1.10]
  Other 0.97 [0.74–1.29] 1.18 [0.93–1.50] 1.02 [0.74–1.41] 0.86 [0.586–1.33]
 Immunosuppression
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 0.98 [0.84–1.14] 1.10 [0.95–1.21] 1.16 [0.98–1.38] 1.05 [0.86–1.27]
 Neurological disease
  No 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.00 [0.85–1.17] 1.01 [0.88–1.15] 1.10 [0.92–1.32] 0.98 [0.80–1.19]
 Pregnancy
  No   1   1
  Yes   1.06 [0.72–1.58]   1.37 [0.72–2.62]
Antecedent of hospitalization in the last 3 months
 Length of the longest stay in ICU
  No stay, or stay ≤7 days    1 1
  > 7 days    1.67 [1.16–2.38] 1.75 [1.01–3.03]
  1. Abbreviations: ORc crude Odds ratio, CI 95 95% confidence interval, UTI urinary tract infection, UT urinary tract, ICU intensive care unit
  2. a Infection with at least one prior hospitalization (any cause except UTI) in the last 3 months
  3. b at least 3 prior UTIs in the last 12 months