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Table 5 Early warning indicators for the occurrence of severe cases with COVID-19

From: Associated risk factors with disease severity and antiviral drug therapy in patients with COVID-19

  Univariable OR (95%CI) p value Multivariable OR (95%CI) p value
Demographics and clinical characteristics
 Age, years
   ≥ 60 3.985 (2.701–5.879) < 0.001 3.022 (1.130–8.083) 0.028
 Sex
  Male 2.034 (1.415–2.924) < 0.001   
 Comorbidity
  Hypertension 2.152 (1.484–3.121) < 0.001 0.724 (0.263–1.999) 0.531
  Diabetes 2.178 (1.336–3.550) 0.002   
  Heart disease 2.023 (1.152–3.552) 0.014   
  Cancer 2.155 (0.88–5.276) 0.093   
 Temperature, °C
   ≥ 38.0 2.010 (1.103–3.663) 0.023 1.355 (0.536–3.423) 0.521
 Symptom
  More than one sign or symptom 2.841 (1.941–4.157) < 0.001   
  Fever, cough and dyspnea 2.373 (1.580–3.566) < 0.001   
Radiographic and laboratory findings
 Radiographic findings a
  Bilateral pneumonia 6.419 (2.253–18.287) < 0.001   
 Leucocytes (×109/L)
   < 4 0.119 (0.053–0.267) < 0.001   
   > 10 0.056 (0.023–0.138) < 0.001   
 Lymphocyte count (×109/L)
  LN < 1.0 3.297 (2.213–4.912) < 0.001 1.903 (0.736–4.923) 0.184
 Procalcitonin (ng/ml)
   > 0.1 6.860 (4.222–11.146) < 0.001   
 Troponin T (ng/ml)
   > 0.014 9.465 (5.412–16.554) < 0.001   
 D-dimer (μg/ml)
   > 0.243 4.375 (2.191–8.734) < 0.001 2.734 (1.012–7.387) 0.047
 Glomerular filtration rate
   < 66 4.375 (2.191–8.734) < 0.001   
 Oxygenation index 0.986 (0.983–0.989) < 0.001 0.984 (0.980–0.989) < 0.001
 Lactic acid (mmol/L)
   > 2.2 1.547 (0.939–2.551) 0.087   
  1. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and six variables were selected for further multivariable. OR Odds ratio
  2. a Radiographic findings include the findings of both chest X-ray and lung CT scan