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Table 2 Clinical characteristics, radiographic, and etiology of patients with COVID-19

From: Associated risk factors with disease severity and antiviral drug therapy in patients with COVID-19

Variables All Patients (n = 550) Severe (n = 178) Non-severe (n = 372) p value
Surgical history, n (%) 90 (16.4%) 24 (13.5%) 66 (17.7%) 0.207
Signs and symptoms, n (%)
 Fever
   < 37.3 °C 178 (32.3%) 21 (11.8%) 157 (42.3%) < 0.001
  37.3–38.0 °C 117 (21.3%) 35 (19.7%) 82 (22.0%) < 0.001
  38.0–39.0 °C 204 (37.1%) 93 (52.2%) 111 (29.8%) < 0.001
   > 39.0 °C 51 (9.3%) 29 (16.3%) 22 (5.9%) < 0.001
 Dry cough 257 (46.7%) 90 (50.6%) 167 (44.9%) 0.212
 Dyspnea 237 (43.1%) 119 (66.9%) 118 (31.7%) < 0.001
 Fatigue 224 (40.7%) 91 (51.1%) 133 (35.8%) 0.001
 Sputum production 169 (30.7%) 70 (39.3%) 99 (26.6%) 0.002
 Chill 123 (22.4%) 52 (29.2%) 71 (19.1%) 0.008
 Stomachache/Diarrhea 75 (13.6%) 29 (16.3%) 46 (12.4%) 0.209
 Nausea/Vomit 70 (12.7%) 22 (12.4%) 48 (12.9%) 0.858
 Myalgia 57 (10.4%) 18 (10.1%) 39 (10.5%) 0.894
 Sore throat 46 (8.8%) 12 (6.7%) 34 (9.1%) 0.342
 Tachycardia 33 (6.0%) 17 (9.6%) 16 (4.3%) 0.015
 Headache 26 (4.7%) 7 (3.9%) 19 (5.1%) 0.544
 Dizziness 18 (3.3%) 4 (2.2%) 14 (3.8%) 0.350
 Sneeze 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%) 1.000
 Arthralgia 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%) 1.000
 Multiple symptoms 393 (71.5%) 162 (91.0%) 231 (62.1%) < 0.001
 Fever, cougha, and dyspnea 130 (23.6%) 76 (42.7%) 54 (14.5%) < 0.001
Radiographic findingsb, n (%)
 Bilateral pneumonia 378/482 (78.4%) 146/161 (90.7%) 232/321 (72.3%) < 0.001
 Unilateral pneumonia 50/482 (10.4%) 5/161 (3.1%) 45/321 (14.0%) < 0.001
 Normal 7/482 (1.5%) 0/161 (0%) 7/321 (2.2%) < 0.001
 Others 47/482 (9.7%) 10/161 (6.2%) 37/321 (11.5%) < 0.001
Etiological findings, n (%)
 Phlegm smear
  Gram-positive bacilli 3/34 (8.8%) 1/11 (9.1%) 2/23 (8.7%) 0.374
  Gram-negative bacilli 12/34 (35.4%) 3/11 (27.3%) 9/23 (39.1%) 0.374
  Cocci 10/34 (29.4%) 2/11 (18.2%) 8/23 (34.8%) 0.374
  Fungus 1/34 (2.9%) 1/11 (9.1%) 0/23 (0.0%) 0.374
  Normal 8/34 (23.5%) 4/11 (36.3%) 4/23 (17.4) 0.374
Mycoplasma/Chlamydia Pneumoniae antibody (IgM)
 Positive 27/350 (7.7%) 4/121 (3.3%) 23/229 (10.0%) 0.042
 Negative 323/350 (92.3%) 117/121 (96.7%) 206/229 (90.0%) 0.042
Respiratory pathogen antibody
 Positive 29/342 (8.5%) 13/123 (10.6%) 16/219 (7.3%) 0.299
 Negative 313/342 (91.5%) 110/123 (89.4%) 203/219 (92.7%) 0.299
CMV/EBV
 Positive 10/154 (6.5%) 4/54 (7.4%) 6/100 (6.0%) 1.000
 Negative 144/154 (93.5%) 50/54 (92.6%) 94/100 (94.0%) 1.000
Influenza Virus Antigen
 Positive 3/265 (1.1%) 1/103 (1.0%) 2/162 (1.2%) 1.000
 Negative 262/265 (98.9%) 102/103 (99.0%) 160/162 (98.8%) 1.000
Admission 9 (6–14) 10 (7–12) 9 (5.75–15) 0.797
Dyspnea 0 (0–7) 2 (0–8) 0 (0–6) 0.007
Mechanical ventilation 10 (6–15) 10 (6.75–15)
ARDS 10 (6–15) 10 (6.75–15)
  1. Data are shown as median (IQR) or n (%). ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, CMV Cytomegalovirus. EBV Epstein-Barr virus
  2. aCough includes dry cough and expectoration
  3. bRadiographic findings include the findings of both the chest X-ray and lung CT scan. When “viral pneumonia” was reported only, without a description of the lesion sites, the results were marked by others