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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of severely-symptomatic COVID-19 patients who survived and of COVID-19 patients who died in hospital

From: Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy

  Whole cohort (N = 103) Surviving patients
(n = 84)
Non-surviving patients
(n = 19)
P-value
Age, years mean(SD) 66.12 (14.14) 64.72 (14.72) 72.32 (8.95) 0.006‡
Males N(%) 70 (68%) 57 (68%) 13 (68%) 0.962†
CV diseasesa N(%) 12 (12%) 11 (13%) 1 (5%) 0.458¥
At least 1 comorbidityb N(%) 63 (61%) 48 (57%) 15 (79%) 0.078†
 Obesity N (%) 20 (19%) 18 (21%) 2 (11%) 0.353¥
 Diabetes N (%) 19 (18%) 10 (12%) 9 (47%) 0.001¥
 Hypertension N (%) 52 (50%) 40 (48%) 12 (63%) 0.221†
25OHD ng/mL mean(SD) 18.2 (11.5) 19.3 (12.0) 13.2 (6.4) 0.0003‡
vitamin D deficiency (25OHD ≤20 ng/mL) N(%) 64 (62%) 51 (61%) 13 (68%) 0.532†
Creatinine μmol/L
median [IQR]
0.86 [0.72–1.04] 0.87 [0.74–1.03] 0.75 [0.62–1.25] 0.284ǂ
IL-6 pg/mL
median [IQR]
25.00
[13.00–51.00]
21.00
[10.45–45.90]
45.00
[28.00–99.00]
0.002ǂ
D-dimer ng/mL
median [IQR]
2482
[1697–3267]
2134
[1303–2965]
3947
[1782–6223]
0.08 ǂ
C-reactive Protein, nmol/L
median [IQR]
2.16
[0.78–8.21]
1.81
[0.69–5.55]
11.30
[4.78–21.71]
< 0.0001ǂ
Fibrinogen, g/L mean(SD) 482.3 (167.4) 475.5 (151.6) 512.6 (227.4) 0.505‡
Lactate dehydrogenase, mU/mL median [IQR] 260.00
[230.00–312.00]
252.00
[215.00–294.00]
330.00
[285.00–643.00]
< 0.0001ǂ
Leukocytes count, ×109/L
median [IQR]
7.90
[5.50–10.10]
7.80
[5.35–9.80]
8.60
[6.40–12.30]
0.136ǂ
Neutrophils count, × 109/L
median [IQR]
5.60
[3.30–7.40]
4.50
[3.20–6.80]
7.20
[5.60–9.90]
0.002ǂ
Lymphocytes count, ×109/L median [IQR] 1.50
[1.00–2.00]
1.50
[1.15–2.10]
1.10
[0.80–1.70]
0.029ǂ
Platelets count, ×109/L
median [IQR]
299.00
[228.00–378.50]
299.00
[228.00–378.50]
213.00
[139.00–308.00]
0.0015ǂ
  1. P-value are referred to the comparison between non-surviving patients and surviving patients
  2. acardiovascular disease: coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction; b at least 1 comorbidity: among obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension. SD Standard Deviation, IQR interquartile range, ‡ = T-test, ǂ = Wilcoxon test, ¥ = Fisher test; † = Chi-square test
  3. Lactate dehydrogenase normal values: 8–300 mU/mL; Fibrinogen normal values: 2.0–4.0 mg/dL; Leukocyte normal values: 4.5–11.0 × 109/L; Neutrophil normal values: 1.5–8.0 × 109/L; Absolute Lymphocyte Count normal values: 0.9–2.9 × 109/L; Platelet normal values: 150–400 × 109/L