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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of severely-symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital ward or to Intensive Care Unit

From: Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy

  Whole cohort (N = 103) Patients admitted to hospital ward
(n = 49)
Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit
(n = 54)
P-value
Age, years mean(SD) 66.12 (14.14) 68.82 (14.93) 63.67 (13.00) 0.064 ‡
Males N(%) 70 (68%) 28 (57%) 42 (78%) 0.025†
CV diseasesa N (%) 12 (12%) 4 (8%) 8 (15%) 0.293†
At least 1 comorbidityb N(%) 63 (61%) 25 (51%) 38 (70%) 0.044†
 Obesity N (%) 20 (19%) 7 (14%) 13 (24%) 0.210†
 Diabetes N (%) 19 (18%) 7 (14%) 12 (22%) 0.300†
 Hypertension N (%) 52 (50%) 21 (43%) 31 (57%) 0.140†
25OHD ng/mL mean(SD) 18.2 (11.4) 22.4 (12.7) 14.4 (8.6) 0.0003‡
vitamin D deficiency (25OHD ≤20 ng/mL) N(%) 64 (62%) 22 (45%) 42 (78%) 0.0006†
Creatinine μmol/L
median [IQR]
0.86
[0.72–1.04]
0.93
[0.81–1.04]
0.80
[0.66–0.95]
0.008ǂ
IL-6 pg/mL
median [IQR]
25.00
[13.00–51.00]
16.00
[8.00–32.00]
42.95
[19.00–56.00]
0.0002ǂ
D-Dimer ng/mL
median [IQR]
2482
[1697–3267]
2118
[1125–3110]
2786
[1585–3986]
0.403
C-reactive Protein, nmol/L
median [IQR]
2.16
[0.78–8.21]
2.67
[0.88–5.82]
1.81
[0.72–9.83]
0.872ǂ
Fibrinogen, g/L mean(SD) 482.3 (167.4) 503.6 (144.4) 463.0 (181.5) 0.222‡
Lactate dehydrogenase, mU/mL median [IQR] 260.00
[230.00–312.00]
253.00
[222.00–279.00]
284.50
[238.00–364.00]
0.009ǂ
Leukocytes count, ×109/L
median [IQR]
7.90
[5.50–10.10]
7.00
[5.20–8.30]
8.50
[6.10–10.80]
0.052ǂ
Neutrophils count, × 109/L
median [IQR]
5.60
[3.30–7.40]
3.90
[3.10–5.70]
6.70
[3.80–8.00]
0.002ǂ
Lymphocytes count, ×109/L median [IQR] 1.50
[1.00–2.00]
1.50
[1.30–2.20]
1.30
[0.90–1.90]
0.039ǂ
Platelets count, ×109/L
median [IQR]
283.00
[214.00–369.00]
330.00
[276.00–399.00]
228.00
[186.00–345.00]
0.0005ǂ
  1. P-value are referred to the comparison between patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit and those admitted to hospital ward
  2. a cardiovascular disease: coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction; b at least 1 comorbidity among obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension. SD Standard Deviation, IQR interquartile range, ‡ = T-test, ǂ = Wilcoxon test, † = Chi-square test
  3. Patients in intensive care unit: patients with respiratory distress requiring continuous positive airway pressure and/or endo-tracheal intubation. 25OHD 25hydroxyvitamin D; IL-6 interleukin-6
  4. Lactate dehydrogenase normal values: 8–300 mU/mL; Fibrinogen normal values: 2.0–4.0 mg/dL; Leukocyte normal values: 4.5–11.0 × 109/L; Neutrophil normal values: 1.5–8.0 × 109/L; Absolute Lymphocyte Count normal values: 0.9–2.9 × 109/L; Platelet normal values: 150–400 × 109/L