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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of severely-symptomatic COVID-19 patients, mildly-symptomatic COVID-19 patients and non SARS-CoV-2 infected control subjects

From: Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy

  Whole cohort
(N = 361)
Non SARS-CoV-2 infected Control
(N = 206)
Mildly symptomatic COVID-19
(n = 52)
Severely Symptomatic COVID-19
(n = 103)
P-value
Age, years median [IQR] 66.00
[54.00–78.00]
67.00
[57.00–77.00]
57.50
[51.00–86.05]
66.70
[56.10–77.40]
0.649 ǂ
Male N(%) 243 (67%) 142 (69%) 31 (60%) 70 (68%) 0.435†
CV disease a N(%) 54 (15%) 31 (15%) 11 (21%) 12 (12%) 0.293†
At least 1 comorbidity b N(%) 181 (50%) 95 (46%) 23 (44%) 63 (61%) 0.03†
 Obesity N (%) 67 (19%) 42 (20%) 5 (10%) 20 (19%) 0.196†
 Diabetes N (%) 61 (17%) 31 (15%) 11 (21%) 19 (18%) 0.510†
 Hypertension N (%) 140 (39%) 75 (36%) 13 (25%) 52 (51%) 0.005†
vitamin D deficiency
(25OHD ≤20 ng/mL) N(%)
127 (35%) 57 (28%) 6 (12%) 64 (62%) < 0.0001†
25OHD ng/mL mean (SD) 24.0 (10.6) 25.4 (9.4) 30.3 (8.4) 18.2 (11.4) < 0.0001‡
  1. IQR Interquartile range; SD Standard Deviation; CV Cardiovascular; ǂ = Kruskal-Wallis test; † = Chi square test; ‡ = ANOVA model;
  2. a cardiovascular disease: coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction; b at least 1 comorbidity among obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension