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Table 1 This table summarizes the meta-analyses for multiple biomarkers and rapid tests on pleural fluid to assist in the diagnosis of TPE. ADA = Adenosine Deaminase; IFNγ = Interferon Gamma; NAAT = Nucleic Acid Amplification Test; Xpert MTB-Rif = Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Resistance to Rifampin Assay; IL-27 = Interleukin-27; LR = Likelihood Ratio

From: Adenosine deaminase negative pleural tuberculosis: a case report

Biomarker Study Sensitivity Specificity +LR -LR Summary
ADA Liang et al. 2008 [4] 0.92 0.90 9.03 0.10 ADA useful in diagnosis of TPE
  Gui et al. 2014 [13] 0.86 0.88 6.32 0.15 ADA is relatively accurate
  Aggarwal et al. 2019 [6] 0.92 0.90 8.92 0.09 Good accuracy regardless of prevalence or setting
IFNγ Jiang et al. 2007 [14] 0.89 0.97 23.45 0.11 Relatively accurate
  Zhou et al. 2011 [15] 0.75 0.82 3.49 0.24 Not a useful test
  Aggarwal et al. 2015 [16] 0.72 0.79 3.65 0.31 Not a useful test
NAAT Pai et al. 2004 [17] 0.62 0.98 25.4 0.40 Unclear utility in TPE
Xpert MTB-Rif Sehgal et al. 2016 [18] 0.51 0.99 36.7 0.49 Possibly useful when positive
IL-27 Liu et al. 2018 [19] 0.93 0.97 25.88 0.07 Possible novel biomarker