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Table 2 Predictors of Aetiology of Imported Gastrointestinal Disease

From: Predictors of aetiology and outcomes of acute gastrointestinal illness in returning travellers: a retrospective cohort analysis

  Resolution (N = 1235) Non-resolution (N = 215) Total (N = 1450) p value
Gender     0.043
 Female 684 (55.4%) 135 (62.8%) 819 (56.5%)  
 Male 551 (44.6%) 80 (37.2%) 631 (43.5%)  
Age     0.914
 Mean (SD) 35.986 (12.241) 35.888 (13.009) 35.971 (12.353)  
 Range 16.000 - 84.540 15.240 - 78.340 15.240 - 84.540  
Travel History
 Central Asia 31 (2.5%) 7 (3.3%) 38 (2.6%) 0.528
 Europe 46 (3.7%) 7 (3.3%) 53 (3.7%) 0.735
 North Africa 144 (11.7%) 27 (12.6%) 171 (11.8%) 0.706
 Pacific Islands 2 (0.2%) 2 (0.9%) 4 (0.3%) 0.047
 Southern Africa 84 (6.8%) 9 (4.2%) 93 (6.4%) 0.149
 Caribbean 44 (3.6%) 15 (7.0%) 59 (4.1%) 0.019
 South America 108 (8.7%) 17 (7.9%) 125 (8.6%) 0.686
 Bahamas 1 (0.1%) 2 (0.9%) 3 (0.2%) 0.011
 Middle East 32 (2.6%) 9 (4.2%) 41 (2.8%) 0.193
 Australia and New Zealand 19 (1.5%) 4 (1.9%) 23 (1.6%) 0.727
 South Asia 264 (21.4%) 55 (25.6%) 319 (22.0%) 0.17
 Central America 79 (6.4%) 18 (8.4%) 97 (6.7%) 0.285
 West Africa 144 (11.7%) 17 (7.9%) 161 (11.1%) 0.106
 South East Asia 248 (20.1%) 43 (20.0%) 291 (20.1%) 0.978
 East Africa 227 (18.4%) 33 (15.3%) 260 (17.9%) 0.285
 North America and Canada 19 (1.5%) 10 (4.7%) 29 (2.0%) 0.003
 China 32 (2.6%) 6 (2.8%) 38 (2.6%) 0.866
 Oceania 6 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (0.4%) 0.306
 Central.Africa 22 (1.8%) 5 (2.3%) 27 (1.9%) 0.586
Syndrome     0.002
 Non-dysenteric diarrhoea 936 (75.8%) 145 (67.4%) 1081 (74.6%)  
 Abdominal pain 146 (11.8%) 30 (14.0%) 176 (12.1%)  
 Dysenteric diarrhoea 116 (9.4%) 37 (17.2%) 153 (10.6%)  
 Other 37 (3.0%) 3 (1.4%) 40 (2.8%)  
Stool Microscopy
 White cells 108 (8.7%) 19 (8.8%) 127 (8.8%) 0.965
 Red cells 51 (4.1%) 11 (5.1%) 62 (4.3%) 0.509
Peripheral WBC Count     0.251
 Decreased 12 (1.0%) 2 (0.9%) 14 (1.0%)  
 Increased 127 (10.3%) 32 (14.9%) 159 (11.0%)  
 Normal 1034 (83.7%) 172 (80.0%) 1206 (83.2%)  
C-reactive Protein     0.209
 Increased 435 (35.2%) 65 (30.2%) 500 (34.5%)  
 Normal 732 (59.3%) 141 (65.6%) 873 (60.2%)  
ALT     0.447
 Increased 164 (13.3%) 33 (15.3%) 197 (13.6%)  
 Normal 1004 (81.3%) 174 (80.9%) 1178 (81.2%)  
Any Definitive Diagnosis 261 (21.1%) 40 (18.6%) 301 (20.8%) 0.399
Microbiological Diagnosis 214 (17.3%) 28 (13.0%) 242 (16.7%) 0.153
 Bacterial 100 (8.1%) 11 (5.1%) 111 (7.7%) 0.118
 Parasitic 119 (9.6%) 18 (8.4%) 137 (9.4%) 0.559
Diagnosis
Giardia intestinalis 78 (6.3%) 14 (6.5%) 92 (6.3%) 0.913
Entamoeba histolytica 6 (0.5%) 1 (0.5%) 7 (0.5%) 0.968
Blastocystis hominis 27 (2.2%) 2 (0.9%) 29 (2.0%) 0.225
Cryptosporidium parvum 13 (1.1%) 2 (0.9%) 15 (1.0%) 0.87
Cyclospora cayatanensis 6 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (0.4%) 0.306
Campylobacter spp. 43 (3.5%) 4 (1.9%) 47 (3.2%) 0.215
Shigella spp. 22 (1.8%) 3 (1.4%) 25 (1.7%) 0.688
Salmonella spp. 35 (2.8%) 4 (1.9%) 39 (2.7%) 0.415
Plesiomonas shigelloides 5 (0.4%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (0.3%) 0.35