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Table 2 Immunological discordant responses and associated factors among HAART users in Mekelle Hospital and Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (n = 260)

From: Immunological and virological discordance among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Characteristics Immunological discordance P-value*
Yes n (%)  
Gender
 Male 3 (2.8) 1.000
 Female 4 (2.6)
Age (years) at HAART initiation
< 35 2 (2.4) 1.000
 > 35 5 (2.8)
Age (years) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
< 39 3 (2.1) 0.706
 > 39 4 (3.4)
Residence
 Rural 1 (2.0) 1.000
 Urban 6 (2.8)
Chronic non-communicable diseasesa
 Yes 0 (0) 1.000
 No 72.8)
TB co-infection
 Yes 4 (9.3) 0.016
 No 3 (1.4)
History of Opportunistic Infections (other than TB)b
 Yes 3 (2.1) 0.704
 No 4 (3.4)
HBV co-infection
 Yes 2 (18.2) 0.05
 No 3 (2.8)
HCV co-infection
 Yes 1 (50.0) 0.062
 No 1 (1.6)
Adherence to treatment
 Poor/fair 2 (11.1) 0.08
 Good 5 (2.1)
WHO clinical stage at baseline
 I and II 0 (0.0)  
 III and IV 7 (5.1)  
CD4+ count (cell/μl) at baseline
< 100 5 (6.5) 0.026
 > 100 2 (1.1)
Regimen given
 TDF basedc 7 (3.6)  
 AZT basedd 0 (0)  
  1. Note: *P-value is determined by Fisher’s exact test, INH Isoniazid, TB Tuberculosis, WHO World Health Organization, HBV Hepatitis B virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus. a Includes Hypertension and Diabetic mellitus. b Includes: oral/esophageal candidiasis; Pneumonias; Diarrhea; Zoster e.t.c. c Drugs used concomitantly with TDF (Tenofovir) were: 3TC (lamivudine) + EFV (efaverinz) / NVP (Nevirapine). Drugs used concomitantly with AZT (zidovudin); were: AZT+ 3TC+ NVP/ EFV