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Table 1 Characteristics of Immuno-virological responders among people living with HIV on HAART Mekelle hospital and Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (n = 260)

From: Immunological and virological discordance among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Characteristics Immuno-virological Discordant Responses Total (n %))
No (n (%)) Yes (n (%))
Gender
 Male 90 (82.6) 19 (17.4) 109 (100)
 Female 140 (92.7) 11 (7.3) 151 (100)
Age (years) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
< 39 122 (86.5) 19 (13.5) 141 (100)
 > 39 108 (90.8) 11 (9.2) 119 (100)
Educational level
 No education 54 (85.7) 9 (14.3) 63 (100)
 Primary 66 (83.5) 13 (16.5) 79 (100)
 Secondary and above 110 (93.2) 8 (6.8) 118 (100)
Residence
 Rural 41 (83.7) 8 (16.3) 49 (100)
 Urban 189 (89.6) 22 (10.4) 211 (100)
Chronic non-communicable diseasesa
 Yes 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0) 12 (100)
 No 221 (89.1) 27 (10.9) 248 (100)
INH Prophylaxis given
 Yes 119 (93.0) 9 (7.0) 128 (100)
 No 111 (84.1) 21 (15.9) 132 (100)
History of TB co-infection
 Yes 37 (86.0) 6 (14.0) 43 (100)
 No 193 (88.9) 24 (11.1) 217 (100)
History of opportunistic infections (other than TB)b
 Yes 126 (88.1) 17 (11.9) 143 (100)
 No 104 (88.9) 13 (11.1) 117 (100)
Adherence to treatment
 Fair/Poor 9 (50.0) 9 (50.0) 18 (100)
 Good 221 (91.3) 21 (8.7) 242 (100)
Regimen given
 TDF basedc 179 (90.9) 18 (9.1) 197 (100)
 AZT basedd 49 (81.7) 11 (18.3) 60 (100)
 ABC basede 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 3 (100)
Age (years) at HAART initiation
< 35 113 (85.6) 19 (14.4) 132 (100)
 > 35 117 (91.4) 11 (8.6) 128 (100)
WHO clinical stage at baseline
 I/II 112 (91.1) 12 (8.9) 124 (100)
 III/IV 118 (86.8) 18 (13.2) 136 (100)
History of malnutrition
 Yes 68 (81.9) 15 (18.1) 83 (100)
 No 162 (91.5) 15 (8.5) 177 (100)
Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis given (months) (N= 239)
< 30 96 (83.5) 19 (16.5) 115 (100)
 > 30 113 (91.1) 11 (8.9) 124 (100)
Viral load (copies/mL) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
 < 1000 221 (96.1) 9 (3.9) 230 (100)
> 1000 9 (30.0) 21 (70.0) 30 (100)
CD4+ count (cells/μl) at baseline
< 100 67 (87.0) 10 (13.0) 77 (100)
 101–200 69 (85.2) 12 (14.8) 81 (100)
 201–300 49 (92.5) 4 (7.5) 53 (100)
 > 300 45 (91.8) 4 (8.2) 49 (100)
CD4+ count (cells/μl) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
< 100 9 (56.2) 7 (43.8) 16 (100)
 101–200 27 (79.4) 7 (20.6) 34 (100)
 201–300 34 (81.0) 8 (19.0) 42 (100)
 > 300 160 (95.2) 8 (4.8) 168 (100)
Time interval from HIV Diagnosis to HAART initiation (months)
< 12 175 (87.1) 26 (12.9) 201 (100)
 > 12 55 (93.2) 4 (6.8) 59 (100)
HBV co- infection(n= 139)
 Yes 7 (63.6) 4 (36.4) 11 (100)
 No 114 (89.1) 14 (10.9) 128 (100)
HCV co-infection(n= 64)
 Yes 0 (0.0) 2 (100) 2 (100)
 No 53 (85.5) 9 (14.5) 62 (100)
  1. Note: INH Isoniazid, TB Tuberculosis, HBV Hepatitis B virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus. a Includes Hypertension and Diabetic mellitus. b Includes: oral/esophageal candidiasis; Pneumonias; Diarrhea; Zoster e.t.c c Drugs used concomitantly with TDF (Tenofovir) were: 3TC (lamivudine) + EFV (efaverinz) / NVP (Nevirapine); d Drugs used concomitantly with AZT (zidovudin); were: AZT+ 3TC+ NVP/ EFV; e Drugs used concomitantly with ABC (abacabir) were: 3TC and EFV