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Table 4 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in patients with COVID-19 and different neurological conditions

From: Central and peripheral nervous system involvement by COVID-19: a systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, neuropathology, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and cerebrospinal fluid findings

Clinical manifestation N° patients Proteins (mg/dL) Cells (cells/μL) SARS-CoV-2 PCR
Average Range Average Range Positive Negative N/M
Cerebrospinal fluid findings in patients with central nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2
 Encephalopathy 13 67·3 0 to 230 9·8 0 to 37 0 9 4
 Encephalitis 7 83·1 19 to 200 40.6 0 to 115 2 5 0
 Demyelinating lesions in brain and spine 4 47 32 to 62 1 1 1 1 2
 Meningoencephalitis 3 463·5 461 to 466 17.3 0 to 21 1 2 0
 Stroke 3 50 50 0 0 0 2 1
 Seizures 3 66 66 3 1 to 5 0 3 0
 Brain vasculopathies 2 292·5 78 to 507 6.5 0 to 13 0 2 0
 Rhombencephalitis 1 42·3 42.3 0 0 0 0 1
 Maniac episode 1 190 190 0 0 0 1 0
Total 37   4 25 8
Cerebrospinal fluid findings in patients with peripheral nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2
 Guillain-Barré syndrome 17 105·9 40 to 193 2.4 0 to 9 0 11 6
 Miller-Fisher syndrome 2 75 62 to 80 2.5 0 to 5 0 1 1
 Polineuritis cranealis 1 62 62 2 2 0 1 0
 Facial palsy 2 44 44 0 0 0 2 0
Total 22   0 15 7