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Table 3 Logistic regression model of independent variables associated with SpO2 levels in patients with COVID-19

From: Sociodemographic determinants and clinical risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity: a cross-sectional analysis of over 200,000 patients in Tehran, Iran

Variables aOR 95% Confidence Interval P value
Lower Upper
Age (years)
 0–19 1    
 20–39 0.52 0.492 0.563 < 0.001
 40–59 0.94 0.889 1.010 0.09
 60 and over 1.51 1.422 1.616 < 0.001
Sex
 Women 1    
 Men 1.15 1.124 1.181 < 0.001
Residing area
 West 1    
 Central, South 1.15 1.11 1.20 < 0.001
 North, East 1.66 1.622 1.712 < 0.001
Positive history of smoking 0.82 0.747 0.904 < 0.001
Positive history of opioids 1.15 1.027 1.306 0.01
Positive history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 1.76 1.724 1.815 < 0.001
Positive chest CT findings 3.10 2.956 3.256 < 0.001
Underlying diseases
 Diabetes 0.92 0.890 0.968 < 0.001
 Hypertension 1.12 1.083 1.174 < 0.001
 CVD 0.74 0.717 0.780 < 0.001
 Cancer 0.916 0.842 0.997 0.43
 Asthma 1.03 0.933 1.154 0.49
 Chronic respiratory diseases 1.26 1.147 1.398 < 0.001
 Chronic liver diseases 0.86 0.726 1.030 0.10
 Chronic kidney diseases 0.89 0.828 0.976 0.01
 Chronic neurological diseases 1.12 0.989 1.271 0.07
 Chronic immune deficiency diseases 1.08 0.868 1.359 0.47
 Chronic haematological diseases 0.85 0.722 1.020 0.82
 HIV/AIDS 1.34 0.865 2.096 0.18
Clinical presentations
 Fever 1.40 1.370 1.444 < 0.001
 Cough 0.99 0.970 1.021 0.70
 Muscle ache 0.88 0.861 0.910 < 0.001
 Difficulty breathing 2.43 2.369 2.493 < 0.001
 Chest pain 0.99 0.926 1.067 0.87
 Loss of smell 1.00 0.915 1.107 0.89
 Loss of taste 1.07 0.949 1.215 0.26
 Loss of appetite 0.99 0.940 1.045 0.73
 Nausea 1.02 0.967 1.080 0.44
 Diarrhea 0.81 0.764 0.879 < 0.001
 Headache 0.84 0.802 0.891 < 0.001
 Vertigo 0.95 0.880 1.042 0.31
 Impaired consciousness 2.26 2.115 2.419 < 0.001
 Seizure 1.01 0.812 1.272 0.88
 Paresis 1.07 0.907 1.285 0.39
 Paraplegia 0.87 0.648 1.192 0.40
 Skin lesions 1.57 1.055 2.362 0.02
Constant 0.152    < 0.001