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Table 2 Outcomes for patients with COVID-19 among eligible studies

From: Favipiravir for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Outcome variables
  time to viral clearance time to symptom resolution Others
Chen C [16] Clinical recovery rate of Day 7:
Favipiravir:
Total, 61.21%
Moderate, 71.43%
Severe or critical, 5.56% those in Arbidol:
Total, 51.67%
Moderate, 55.86%
Severe or critical, 0
No mortality both in favipiravir and arbidol groups
Lou Y [17] Viral clearance in day 7
Favipiravir, 44%,
Baloxavir, 60%
Control, 50%
Viral clearance in day 14
Favipiravir, 77%,
Baloxavir, 70%
Control, 100%
Median days (IQR) to clinical improvement:
Favipiravir, 14 (6–38)
Baloxavir, 14 (6–49)
Control, 15 (6–24)
Ivashchenko [18] Viral clearance on day 5:
Favipiravir, 62.5%
SOC group, 30.0%
Viral clearance on day 10:
Favipiravir, 92.5%
SOC group, 80.0%
Chest CT improvement by day 15
Favipiravir, 90%
SOC group, 80%
.
Median days to body temperature normalization (< 37oC) were 2 days (IQR 1–3) in favipiravir group, while those in SOC group were 4 days (IQR 1–8).
Two patients on Favipiravir 1600/600 mg were moved to intensive care unit, received mechanical ventilation and later died.
Doi Y [19] Viral clearance within 6 days were the Early treatments, 66.7%
Late treatments, 56.1%
Median days to viral clearance were Early treatments, 12.8 days
Late treatments, 17.8 days
Median days to hospital discharge:
Early treatments, 14.5 days
Late treatments, 20.0 days
Time to relieve from high fever (≥37.5 °C)
Early treatments, 2.1 days
Late treatments, 3.2 days
Cai Q [20] Median (IQR) days to viral clearance:
Favipiravir, 4 day (2.5–9)
Comparators, 11 (8–13) days
Chest CT improvement on day 9 were 56.3% in favipiravir group, and 35.6% in the comparator group.
Chest CT improvement on day 14 were 91.4% in favipiravir group, and 62.2% in the comparator group.
Logistic regression of changes in lung CT: antiviral therapy (OR, 3.190), and fever (OR, 3.622).
Cox regression of viral clearance
T lymphocyte count (HR, 1.002); Time form onset to treatment (HR, 1.217); FPV vs. LPV/RTV (HR, 3.434)
Rattanaumpawan [21] Clinical improvement for Day 7:
All patients, 42 (66.7%)
Clinical improvement for Day 14:
All patients, 54 (85.7%)
Clinical improvement for Day 28:
All patients, 57 (90.5%)
Day 14, 28 mortality rate, n (%)
all patients: 1 (1.6), 3 (4.8)
Required MV or ECMO, n (%)
Before favipiravir, 4 (6.3)
After favipiravir, 4 (6.3)
Duration of therapy, median (range),
Multivariate analysis revealed three poor prognostic factors for Day-7 clinical improvement [odds ratio (95%CI); p-value]: older age [0.94 (0.89–0.99); p = 0.04], higher baseline NEWS2 score [0.64 (0.47–0.88); p = 0.006], and lower favipiravir loading dose (≤45 mg/kg/day) [0.04 (0.005–0.4); p = 0.006].
Duration of therapy, median (range), days:
clinical improvement on Day 7, 11.5 (2–16)
No clinical improvement on day 7, 12 (2–17)
Yamamura H [22] Died 1 patient due to DIC.
P/F changed very little over the first 6 days and then gradually recovered. IL-6 peaked on day 4 and decreased thereafter. Presepsin peaked on day 3, remained about the same until 6, and then decreased.
Doi K [23] 1 patient who had a do-not-resuscitate order, died on ICU day 7.
No interruption of antiviral treatment occurred due to adverse drug reactions except for one patient who developed hyperkalemia on day 9 (by nafamostat mesylate).
All 11 patients had at least 33 days of hospital follow-up.
Seven patients were successfully weaned from MV [median duration of MV 16 days (IQR, 10 to 19 days)] and 9 and 7 patients were discharged from the ICU and the hospital, respectively
Murohashi K [24] The mean time to first-time negative conversion of viral RNA was 18 days in 6 confirmed negative cases.   4 patients discharged; 6 patients have no oxygen at rest; 1 patient worsended on the day of admission, and was transferred to another hospital for ventilator management.
Çalik BaŞaran [25] Median (range) days to clinical improvement:
HQ alone, 1 (1–6)
HQ and AZ, 1.5 (1–11)
Favipiravir, 6 (1–20)
Median days of defervescence:
HQ alone, 1 (0–4)
HQ and AZ, 1 (0–11)
Favipiravir, 3 (0–8)
8.5% of patients were transferred to the ICU, 2.2% of patients died.
Median (range) length of hospital stay, were 2 (1–21) in HQ alone, 4 (1–15) in HQ and AZ, and 7.5 (2–24) days in favipiravir groups.
Yaylaci S [26] Among the examined hemarological parameters before and after favipiravir, RBC, hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, neutrophil count were decreased, and lymphocyte count, platelet count were increased with the statistical significance.
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SOC standard of care, CT computed tomography, IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratio, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, NEWS2 National Early Warning Score, HQ hydroxychloroquine, AZ azithromycin, RBC red blood cell, FPV favipiravir, LPV lopinavir, RTV ritonavir, CI confidence interval, IL-6 interleukin-6