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Table 3 Clinical characteristics, management and outcome among 297 patients with positive PCR for Pneumocystis jirovecii

From: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of immunocompromised patients infected with Pneumocystis jirovecii in a twelve-year retrospective study from Norway

Symptoms at baseline, n (%)
 Dyspnea 219 (73.7)
 Fever 214 (72.1)
 Cough 169 (56.9)
 Two symptoms 221 (74.4)
 Three symptoms 92 (31.0)
Objective baseline findings and biochemistry, median (q1-q3)
 Oxygen saturation, % (n = 285)a 89 (85–93)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl (n = 289) 10.7 (9.7–11.7)
 Leukocyte count, × 109/L (n = 287) 7.2 (4.3–10.1)
 Neutrophil count, × 109/L (n = 224) 5.0 (3.0–7.7)
 Lymphocyte count, ×  109/L (n = 152)b 0.6 (0.4–1.1)
 Albumin, g/L (n = 207) 32 (26–36)
 Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L (n = 165) 293 (224–390)
Radiological findings, n (%)
 Remarks on chest X-ray (n = 254) 205 (80.7)
  Nodular, linear and/or patchy opacities 219 (86.2)
  Focal infiltrates 30 (11.8)
  Consolidations 11 (4.33)
 Remarks on thoracic CT (n = 247) 242 (98.0)
  Ground glass opacities 188 (76.1)
  Thickening of interstitial septa 69 (27.9)
  Infiltrates 53 (21.5)
  Consolidations 44 (17.8)
  Lymphadenopathy 41 (16.6)
  Bronchiectasis 18 (7.3)
  Three-in-bud sign 16 (6.5)
  Cysts 12 (4.9)
Management and complications, n (%)
 Receiving PCP-directed treatment 261 (87.9)
 Antimicrobials for other pathogensc 176 (59.3)
 Transferred to an ICU 88 (29.6)
 Receiving ventilation support 88 (29.6)
  Invasive and/or invasive and non-invasive 50 (16.8)
  Non-invasive only 38 (12.8)
 Developing complications 121 (40.7)
  Respiratory failure/ARDS 83 (27.9)
  Superinfection 50 (16.8)
  Hemodynamic failure 37 (12.5)
  Renal failure 33 (11.1)
  Pneumothorax 7 (2.4)
Outcome, n (%)
 In-hospital mortality 64 (21.5)
 Cumulative all-cause mortality
  30-days 60 (20.2)
  90-days 97 (32.7)
  180-days 116 (39.1)
  1. Abbreviations: ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CT computed tomography, ICU intensive care unit, PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCR polymerase chain reaction
  2. a68 patients received supplemental oxygen when oxygen saturation was measured
  3. bLymphopenia (< 1.0 lymphocytes × 109/L) was present among 108 patients (71.1%) with retrievable lymphocyte counts
  4. c163 patients received antibiotics, 56 patients received antifungals, 25 patients received antivirals other than anti-retrovirals and four patients received anti-tuberculous drugs