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Table 2 Biochemical profile of participants (n = 545)

From: Asymptomatic urinary tract infections and associated risk factors in Pakistani Muslim type 2 diabetic patients

Variable Urine Culture Total (n = 545) P-value
Negative
(n = 501)
Positive (n = 44)
HbA1C level; mean ± SD 8.8 ± 1.8 8.5 ± 1.51 8.8 (1.8) 0.31
HbA1C level
  < 7 57 (11.4) 6 (13.6) 63 (11.6) 0.65
  ≥ 7 444 (88.6) 38 (86.4) 482 (88.4)
eGFR
  < 45 13 (2.6) 1 (2.3) 14 (2.6) 0.89^
 45 and above 488 (97.4) 43 (97.7) 531 (97.4)
eGFR; median (IQR) 97 (35.1) 93.4 (35.8) 97 (34.6) 0.44~
ALT level; median (IQR) 32 (29.5) 27 (19.5) 32 (28.5) 0.02*~
ALT level, IU/L
 Normal (M < 45, F < 34) 304 (60.4) 32 (72.7) 336 (61.7)  
 High (M = 45 & above, F = 34 & above) 197 (39.3) 12 (27.3) 209 (38.3) 0.12
AST level; median (IQR) 28 (15) 23 (11.8) 27 (15) 0.01*~
AST level, IU/L
 Normal (M < 35, F < 31) 339 (67.7) 33 (75.0) 372 (68.3) 0.32
 High (M = 35 & above, F = 31 & above) 162 (32.3) 11 (25.0) 173 (31.7)
  1. significant at p < 0.05. ^Fischer exact test was applied. ~Mann Whitney U test applied for non-normal data
  2. ALT Normal level: Male < 45 IU/L and Female < 34 IU/L; ALT High level Male: =45 IU/L & above, Female = 34 IU/L & above; AST Normal level: Male < 35 IU/L and Female < 31 IU/L; AST High level: Male =35 IU/L & above, Female =31 IU/L & above
  3. ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, eGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (mL/min)