Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Findings of COVID-19 according to HScore (≤98 as sHLH negative, ≥169 as sHLH positive, 98–169 as uncertain)

From: Risk factors for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in severe coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients

  ≤98 (n = 279) ≥169(n = 41) 98–169(n = 88) P valuec
outcome     < 0.0001
 Survivor, n(%) 182(65.23) 0(0.00) 13(14.77)  
 Non-survivor, n(%) 97(34.77) 41(100.00) 75(85.23)  
 Total 279(100.00) 41(100.00) 88(100.00)  
Gender, Male/Female, n(%) 153(54.84)/ 126(45.16) 27(65.85)/14(34.15) 60(68.18)/28(31.82) 0.0537
Age, years, Mean (SD) 63.00(52.00,72.00) 63.00(52.00,71.00) 65.00(57.00,72.00) 0.2419
age, years, n(%)     0.1869
 <40 17(6.09) 3(7.32) 3(3.41)  
 40–60 101(36.20) 11(26.83) 25(28.41)  
  ≥ 60 161(57.71) 27(65.85) 60(68.18)  
ARDS, n(%) 150(53.76)/129(46.24)a 34(85.00)/6(15.00); 1 68(80.95)/16(19.05); 4 < 0.0001
DIC, n(%) 6(2.17)/ 271(97.83); 2 4(10.53)/34(89.47);3 10(12.66)/69(87.34); 9 0.0004
Liver, n(%) 36(13.00)/241(87.00); 2 12(31.58)/26(68.42); 3 30(37.97)/49(62.03); 9 < 0.0001
Heart, n(%) 50(18.05)/227(81.95); 2 17(44.74)/21(55.26); 3 35(44.30)/44(55.70); 9 < 0.0001
Kidney, n(%) 17(6.14)/260(93.86); 2 16(42.11)/22(57.89); 3 26(32.91)/53(67.09); 9 < 0.0001
Shock, n(%) 31(11.19)/246(88.81); 2 20(52.63)/18(47.37); 3 34(43.04)/45(56.96); 9 < 0.0001
Smoking history, n(%) 14(5.04)/264(94.96); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 4(4.60)/83(95.40); 1 0.9111
Alcohol history, n(%) 16(5.76)/262(94.24); 1 1(2.44)/40(97.56) 4(4.60)/83(95.40); 1 0.3577
Comobidities
 Diabetes,n(%), n(%) 50(17.99)/228(82.01); 1 9(21.95)/32(78.05) 20(22.73)/68(77.27) 0.5630
 Hypertension, n(%) 97(34.89)/181(65.11); 1 11(26.83)/30(73.17) 38(43.18)/50(56.82) 0.1639
 Chronic heart failure, n(%) 29(10.43)/249(89.57); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 7(7.95)/81(92.05) 0.2138
 COPD, n(%) 5(1.80)/273(98.20); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 6(6.82)/82(93.18) 0.0537
 Stroke, n(%) 18(6.47)/260(93.53); 1 0(0.00)/41(100.00) 8(9.09)/80(90.91) 0.3853
 Tumor, n(%) 11(3.96)/267(96.04); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 5(5.68)/83(94.32) 0.5927
 Chronic liver disease, n(%) 6(2.16)/272(97.84); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 6(6.82)/82(93.18) 0.0907
 Chronic kidey disease, n(%) 7(2.52)/271(97.48); 1 2(4.88)/39(95.12) 2(2.27)/86(97.73) 0.5200
 Hepatitis B,n(%) 11(3.94)/268(96.06) 3(7.32)/38(92.68) 1(1.15)/86(98.85); 1 0.7610
 HIV, n(%) 0(0.00)/279(100.00) 0(0.00)/41(100.00) 0(0.00)/87(100.00); 1 1.0000
 Autoimmue disease, n(%) 7(2.52)/271(97.48); 1 3(7.32)/38(92.68) 6(6.82)/82(93.18) 0.0422
Respiratory support, n(%)     < 0.0001
 Intranasal oxygen inhalation 129(47.43) 3(8.11) 13(16.46)  
 Mask oxygen Inhalation 16(5.88) 1(2.70) 1(1.27)  
  High Flow 48(17.65) 3(8.11) 14(17.72)  
  Non-invasive ventilation 35(12.87) 12(32.43) 26(32.91)  
  Invasive ventilaiton 17(6.25) 14(37.84) 22(27.85)  
  ECMO 1(0.37) 3(8.11) 0(0.00)  
CRRT, n(%) 50(17.99)/228(82.01); 1 9(21.95)/32(78.05) 20(22.73)/68(77.27) 0.5630
Inotropic support, n(%) 33(11.83)/ 246(88.17) 21(51.22)/ 20(48.78) 30(34.09)/ 58(65.91) < 0.0001
Corticosteroid treatment, n(%) 133(47.67)/ 146(52.33) 35(85.37)/ 6(14.63) 55(62.50)/ 33(37.50) < 0.0001
Co-infection, n(%)
 Influenza A 3(1.08)/ 273(98.56); 3 1(2.44)/ 38(92.68); 2 2(2.27) /84(95.45); 2 0.0924
 Influenza B 1(0.36)/275(99.28); 3 1(2.44)/ 38(92.68); 2 3(3.41) /83(94.32); 2 0.0127
 Tuberculosis 4(1.44) /274(98.56);1 1(2.44)/ 40(97.56) 3(3.41)/ 85(96.59) 1.0000
Symptoms and signs, n(%)
 heart rate, (per minute)     0.6759
   ≤ 100 32(21.77) 2(3.57) 4(6.67)  
  >100 113(76.87) 26(92.86) 56(93.33)  
  Total 147(100.00) 28(100.00) 60(100.00)  
 Nasal stuffiness 5(1.80) /273(98.20); 1 2(4.88) /39(95.12) 1(1.14) 87(98.86) 1.0000
 Nasal discharge 6(2.16)/272(97.84); 1 5(12.20)/ 36(87.80) 1(1.14)/87(98.86) 0.0086
 Sneezing 3(1.08)/ 275(98.92); 1 0(0.00)/40(100.00); 1 1(1.14)/87(98.86) 1.0000
 Sore throat 4(1.44)/274(98.56); 1 1(2.44)/40(97.56) 3(3.41)/ 85(96.59) 1.0000
 Cough 226(81.29)/ 52(18.71); 1 30(73.17)/11(26.83) 69(78.41)/ 19(21.59) 0.4468
 Sputum production 104(37.41)/174(62.59); 1 16(39.02)/25(60.98) 33(37.50)/55(62.50) 0.9802
 Chest tightness 172(61.87)/106(38.13); 1 30(73.17) /11(26.83) 58(65.91) /30(34.09) 0.3367
 Chest pain 7(2.52) /271(97.48) 1(2.44) /40(97.56) 4(4.55)/ 84(95.45) 0.6647
 Hemoptysis 5(1.80) 273(98.20); 1 2(4.88) /39(95.12) 0(0.00) /88(100.00) 1.0000
 Headache 9(3.24)/ 269(96.76); 1 2(4.88) /39(95.12) 2(2.27)/ 86(97.73) 0.8098
 Myalgia 34(12.23) /244(87.77); 1 3(7.32) /38(92.68) 12(13.64) /76(86.36) 0.5736
 Acratia 102(36.82)/175(63.18);2 26(63.41) /15(36.59) 35(39.77)/ 53(60.23) 0.0052
 Digestive symptoms 36(12.95) /242(87.05) 9(21.95)/ 32(78.05) 13(14.77)/ 75(85.23) 0.3021
 Discomfort of eye 1(0.36)/ 277(99.64); 1 0(0.00)/ 41(100.00) 0(0.00)/ 88(100.00) 1.0000
 Cyanosis 27(9.71) /251(90.29); 1 10(24.39) /31(75.61) 7(7.95)/ 81(92.05) 0.0393
 Rhonchial 18(6.47) 259(93.17); 1 4(9.76) /37(90.24) 4(4.55)/ 84(95.45) 1.0000
 Moist rales 51(18.35)/ 227(81.65) 12(29.27) /29(70.73) 12(13.64) 76(86.36) 0.1028
 SPO2(≤93%/>93%) 173(62.01)/ 106(37.99) 32(78.05)/ 9(21.95) 67(76.14)/ 21(23.86) 0.0131
 Length of hospitalization, d 12.00(8.00,18.00)b 17.00(11.00,22.50) 12.00(7.00,16.00) 0.0029
 Length of ICU, d 0.00(0.00,6.00) 9.50(3.50,12.00) 3.00(0.50,12.00) < 0.0001
 Temperature, °C 38.50(38.00,39.00) 38.50(38.00,38.90) 38.90(38.00,39.00) 0.4406
 Arterial pressure, mmHg 87.00(78.33,93.00) 86.58(81.50,91.33) 86.75(81.33,93.50) 0.1593
 Heart rate, per mimute 89.00(82.00,99.00); 1 90.0081.00,100.00 88.00(80.00,102.00) 0.5895
 Respiratory rate     0.5070
  <24, (per minute) 164(58.78) 26(63.41) 58(65.91)  
  24–30, (per minute) 65(23.30) 5(12.20) 15(17.05)  
   ≥ 30, (per minute) 50(17.92) 10(24.39) 15(17.05)  
  Total 279(100.00) 41(100.00) 88(100.00)  
 SOFA 2.00(1.00,3.00) 3.00(1.00,4.00) 3.00(2.00,5.00) < 0.0001
 APACHEII 7.00(5.00,9.00) 8.00(6.00,11.00) 8.00(6.00,13.00) 0.0010
Laboratory Tests
 Lowest leukocyte, ×109/L 5.08(3.74,7.83)b; 4 6.97(4.38,9.31) 6.77(3.81,10.53); 1 0.0118
 Lowest haemoglobin, g/L 112.00(94.00,124.00); 4 95.00(77.00,106.00) 106.00(78.00,122.00); 1 0.0020
 Lowest patelets, ×109/L 151.00(81.00,197.00); 3 61.00(27.00,101.00) 83.00(26.00,144.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Lowest neutrophils, ×109/L 4.73(2.76,11.46); 8 5.10(3.32,7.39) 7.02(3.97,12.72); 1 0.0804
 Lowest lymphocyte, ×109/L 0.69(0.44,1.22); 5 0.33(0.18,0.53) 0.43(0.28,0.66); 1 < 0.0001
 Lowest fibrinogen, g/L 4.50(3.24,6.35); 15 2.40(1.60,3.46) 3.80(2.10,5.40); 2 < 0.0001
 Lowest prealbumin, g/L 93.00(59.00,127.00); 4 51.00(28.00,85.00) 55.00(29.00,89.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Lowest albumin, g/L 28.90(26.20,32.30); 2 24.40(22.30,27.60) 26.60(23.40,28.90); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak D-Dimer, mg/L 4.58(0.80,32.09); 5 47.82(20.06,80.00) 17.83(3.46,63.70); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak total bilirubin, μg/L 16.60(12.20,30.00); 6 23.98(17.38,37.80) 25.20(16.60,32.30); 1 0.0007
 Peak alanine aminotransferase, U/L 47.00(28.00,67.00); 6 57.00(36.00,122.00) 62.00(38.00,109.00); 1 0.0001
 Peak aspartate aminotransferase, U/L 38.00(26.00,55.00); 5 85.00(52.00,215.00) 65.00(40.00,121.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 7.50(5.30,11.00); 8 21.66(13.50,35.30) 14.90(8.50,24.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak serum creatinine, μg/L 72.95(55.60,99.00); 7 246.10(146.00,413.70) 105.20(67.40,263.10); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak triglycerides, mmol/L 1.95(1.31,3.27); 8 3.27(2.33,4.27) 2.20(1.58,3.43); 1 0.0001
 Peak ferritin, μg/L 710.11(433.23,1276.37); 11 2000.00(2000.00,2000.00) 2000.00(962.51,2000.00); 2 < 0.0001
 Peak Interleukin −6, pg/mL 10.20(7.26,14.98); 16 23.41(11.73,60.57); 1 14.60(8.56,26.90); 4 < 0.0001
 Peak erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h 60.00(43.00,80.00); 10 65.50(49.20,79.00); 3 58.30(39.00,74.00); 4 0.5133
 Peak C-reactive protein, mg/L 76.68(15.60,160.00); 5 160.00(160.00,206.40) 160.00(121.20,198.80); 2 < 0.0001
 Peak procalcitonin, ng/mL 0.11(0.05,0.50); 10 4.21(2.63,15.22) 0.98(0.19,4.90); 2 < 0.0001
 Peak lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 349.00(241.00,534.00); 4 1096.00(708.00,1676.00) 662.00(432.00,944.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak creatine kinase isoenzyme, U/L 21.50(15.00,52.50); 9 47.00(32.00,85.00) 38.00(21.00,77.00); 1 < 0.0001
 Peak Troponin, pg/mL 6.15(2.40,24.60); 7 303.10(33.80,2202.10) 51.50(6.44,591.40); 1 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, DIC Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ECMO Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, CRRT Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, ICU Intensive Care Unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation
  2. Data are expressee as: aNo. (%) yes/no; no. missing (if applicable); bMedian (range); no. missing (if applicable)
  3. c P value compare between Hscore ≥169 group vs Hscore ≤98 group, P < 0.05 means had significantly different