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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19

From: Development and validation of a simple-to-use nomogram to predict the deterioration and survival of patients with COVID-19

Characteristics Total(n = 351) Training dataset (n = 246) Validation dataset (n = 105) P valuea
Demographics
 Age (years), median (IQR) 54(38–66) 54(38–66.25) 54(37–65.5) 0.581
 Female sex, no. (%) 162(46.2) 117(47.6) 45(42.9) 0.418
 Smoking history, n (%) 57(16.2) 41(16.7) 16(15.2) 0.74
Comorbid conditions, n (%)
 Hypertension 80(22.8) 53(21.5) 27(25.7) 0.407
 Diabetes mellitus 41(11.7) 27(11.0) 14(13.3) 0.529
 Coronary heart disease 20(5.7) 13(5.3) 7(6.7) 0.609
 Cerebrovascular diseases 13(3.7) 9(3.7) 4(3.8) 0.922
 COPD 9(2.6) 7(2.8) 2(1.9) 0.73
 Cancer 9(2.6) 9(3.7) 0(0) 0.062
 Immunodeficiency 1(0.3) 1(0.4) 0(0) 1
Laboratory data
 White blood cells (×109/L), median (IQR) 6.3(5.2–8.4) 6.35(5.2–8.5) 6.2(5.25–8.05) 0.725
 Neutrophil (×109/L), median (IQR) 4.21(3.22–6.34) 4.215(3.2325–6.6425) 4.17(3.145–6.135) 0.696
 Monocyte (×109/L), median (IQR) 0.21(0.15–0.28) 0.21(0.14–0.28) 0.21(0.15–0.27) 0.953
 Lymphocyte (×109/L), median (IQR) 0.91(0.62–1.33) 0.91(0.5975–1.3325) 0.9(0.675–1.345) 0.412
 Distribution, no. (%)     0.85
  < 0.8 (×109/L) 133(37.9) 94(38.2) 39(37.1)  
  ≥ 0.8 (×109/L) 218(62.1) 152(61.8) 66(62.9)  
 Hemoglobin (g/L), median (IQR) 108(98–121) 107(97.75–120) 110(100–122) 0.365
 Platelet (×109/L), median (IQR) 130(98–170) 130(98–169.25) 130.5(96.25–171.5) 0.734
 PT (s), median (IQR) 10.9(10.5–11.3) 10.9(10.5–11.3) 10.8(10.4–11.2) 0.157
 APTT (s), median (IQR) 29.7(26.3–33.6) 29.85(26.8–33.575) 29.25(25.425–33.8) 0.284
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 2.664(2.026–3.645) 2.664(2.026–3.542) 2.975(2.081–3.959) 0.192
 D-Dimer (mg/L), median (IQR) 0.6(0.51–1.365) 0.62(0.52–1.518) 0.57(0.51–1.048) 0.052
 TBIL (μmol/L), median (IQR) 9.19(6.63–13.77) 9.205(6.635–14.015) 8.99(6.745–13.385) 0.869
 DBIL (μmol/L), median (IQR) 2.39(1.585–3.57) 2.41(1.6225–3.5375) 2.35(1.56–3.845) 0.866
 Albumin (g/L), median (IQR) 37.4(34–40.9) 37.1(34–40.6) 38.1(34–41.3) 0.223
 Globulin (g/L), median (IQR) 26.4(23.825–28.8) 26.4(23.725–28.875) 26.25(23.925–28.75) 0.907
 ALT (U/L), median (IQR) 21(13.75–34) 20(14–34.5) 21(13–33) 0.69
 AST (U/L), median (IQR) 21(16–28) 21(16–29) 22(17–28) 0.786
 ALT peak (U/L), median (IQR) 35(24–61) 35(24–61) 34(22–61.5) 0.984
 AST peak (U/L), median (IQR) 26(20–39) 26(20–42) 25(20–38) 0.432
 Creatinine (μmol/L), median (IQR) 67.35(54.1–79.825) 67.25(54.65–80.35) 68.2(53.65–79.5) 0.57
 Creatinine peak (μmol/L), median (IQR) 73.4(58.25–87.925) 73.1(58.2–87.75) 74(58.25–88.65) 0.993
 LDH (U/L), median (IQR) 207(164.75–263) 203(164.25–269.5) 211.5(166–260.75) 0.882
 LDH peak (U/L), median (IQR) 224.5(175–305.25) 225(175–311.5) 220(177.5–292) 0.762
 Distribution, no. (%)     0.92
  < 400 (U/L) 286(81.5) 200(81.3) 86(81.9)  
  ≥ 400 (U/L) 40(11.4) 29(11.8) 11(10.5)  
 NA 25(7.1) 17(6.9) 8(7.6)  
 CK (U/L), median (IQR) 63(41–111.5) 58.5(40–108.5) 69.5(43–126.75) 0.126
 CK-MB (U/L), median (IQR) 12.1(9.4–17.7) 12.1(9.5–17.5) 12.2(9.33–18.48) 0.777
 CRP (mg/L), median (IQR) 21.2(4.65–51.625) 20.7(4.35–52.475) 21.55(6.3–48.475) 0.764
 PCT (ng/L), median (IQR) 0.08(0.05–0.135) 0.08(0.05–0.1375) 0.08(0.06–0.135) 0.665
Clinical classification, no. (%)     0.162
 Mild 6(1.7) 2(0.8) 4(3.8)  
 Moderate 279(79.5) 195(79.3) 84(80)  
 Severe 33(9.4) 26(10.6) 7(6.7)  
 Critical 33(9.4) 23(9.3) 10(9.5)  
Treatment, no. (%)
 Antiviral treatment 349(99.4) 244(99.2) 105(100) 1
 Antibacterial treatment 328(93.4) 229(93.1) 99(94.3) 0.678
 Antifungal treatment 20(5.7) 13(5.3) 7(6.7) 0.33
 Glucocorticoids 119(33.9) 85(34.6) 34(32.4) 0.365
 Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy 66(18.8) 46(18.7) 20(19.0) 0.39
 CRRT 5(1.4) 3(1.2) 2(1.9) 0.024b
 NIVV or high-flow nasal cannula 37(10.5) 28(11.4) 9(8.6) 0.432
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 12(3.4) 7(2.8) 5(4.8) 0.354
 Aggravation, no. (%)     0.905
 Mild to Moderate/Severe/Critical 0(0) 0(0) 0(0)  
 Moderate to Severe/Critical 19(5.4) 14(5.7) 5(4.8)  
 Severe to Critical 31(8.8) 21(8.5) 10(9.5)  
 No 301(85.8) 211(85.8) 90(85.7)  
 Death, no. (%) 14(4.0) 9(3.7) 5(4.8) 0.766
  1. Notes: IQR interquartile, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PT prothrombin time, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, TBIL total bilirubin, DBIL direct bilirubin, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate Aminotransferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, CK creatine kinase, CKMB Creatine kinase-MB, CRP C-reactive protein, PCT procalcitonin, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, NIVV non-invasive ventilation, NA not available; aFor comparison between training dataset and validation dataset; bP < 0.05