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Table 1 Characteristics of the NoV cases and matched controls

From: Clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcome of severe Norovirus infection in kidney transplant patients: a case-control study

Variable Norovirus cases (n = 72)
n (%); median [IQR]
Controls (n = 72)
n (%); median [IQR]
p-value
Demographic features
 Age at the time of KT (years) 46 [33.7–58.7] 46 [34–58.1] 0.83
 Male sex 39 (54.2) 37 (51.4) 0.74
 Primary kidney disease    0.08
  Diabetic 15 (20.8) 7 (9.7)  
  Vascular 11 (15.3) 13 (18.1)  
  Chronic glomerulonephritis 11 (15.3) 19 (26.4)  
  Others 35 (48.6) 33 (45.8)  
 Diabetes
  Before transplantation 20 (27.8) 7 (9.7) 0.01
  NODAT 4 (5.8) 5 (6.9) 1
Characteristics of KT
 c-PRA 30.1 30.2 0.88
 First Transplantation 65 (90.3) 61 (84.7) 0.8
 Deceased donor 61 (84.7) 60 (83.3) 1
 Duration of dialysis (months) 28 [7–66] 24 [9–54] 0.24
 HLA mismatch    0.97
   < 2 11 (15.7) 10 (14.1)  
   ≥ 3 61 (84.3) 62 (85.9)  
 Induction therapy
  ATG 70 (97) 67 (93) 0.55
  Basiliximab 2 (3) 5 (7) 0.21
 Maintenance therapy
  Dual therapy 29 (40.3) 30 (41.7) 1
  Triple therapy 89.5 [68–118] 92 [72–123] 0.42
 Events between KT and NoV diagnosis (or index date)
  Plasma CMV reactivation 14 (20) 10 (14.1) 0.38
  Other OI a 5 (7) 1 (1.4) 0.12
Data recorded at diagnosis
 Immunosuppressive regimen
  Corticosteroid 43 (59.7) 42 (58.3) 1
  Mycophenolic acid 68 (94.4) 67 (93.1) 1
  Tacrolimus 43 (59.7) 39 (54.2) 0.61
  Ciclosporin 21 (29.2) 31 (43.1) 0.05
 Laboratory data at diagnosis
  Serum creatinine level (μM) 139 [105–169] 135 [91–172] 0.95
  eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 47 [41–65] 47 [38–68] 0.79
  Positive CMV PCR 10 (13.8) 6 (8.3) 0,06
  Gamma-globulin < 6.5 g/L 10 (13.9) 4 (5.6) 0.06
  Lymphocyte count (/mm3) 500 [300–840] 875 [665–1430] 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: ATG Anti-Thymocyte Globulin, eGFR estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (MDRD), KT Kidney transplantation, NODAT New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation, OI Opportunistic infection, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, cPRA calculated Panel Reactive Antibody
  2. a Other OI: PTLD EBV-positive (Post-Transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder) (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), nocardiosis (n = 1), invasive aspergillosis (n = 1), pneumocystis pneumonia (n = 1)