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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and comparisons between survivors and non-survivors

From: Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases: clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and factors associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production

Variables Total
(N = 60)
Non-survivors
(N = 17)
Survivors
(N = 43)
p value
Age (years) 51.2 ± 17.9 47.2 ± 21.2 52.8 ± 16.4 0.465
Sex (female) 36 (60.0%) 11 (64.7%) 25 (58.1%) 0.640
Corticosteroid use 58 (96.7%) 16 (94.1%) 42 (97.7%) 0.490
Pulse therapy 8 (13.3%) 3 (17.6%) 5 (11.6%) 0.676
Duration of corticotherapy (months) 22.9 ± 46.2 36.8 ± 70.6 17.4 ± 31.5 0.913
Dose of corticosteroids (mg) 52.2 ± 42.6 51.2 ± 36.4 52.5 ± 45.2 0.944
Immunosuppressants 25 (41.7%) 9 (52.9%) 16 (37.2%) 0.265
Hospitalization within last 90 days 48 (80.0%) 13 (76.5%) 35 (81.4%) 0.726
Previous antimicrobial therapy within 30 days 52 (86.7%) 16 (94.1%) 36 (83.7%) 0.420
Ever-smokers 15 (25.0%) 2 (11.8%) 13 (30.2%) 0.192
Pulmonary diseasesa 29 (48.3%) 8 (47.1%) 21 (48.8%) 1.000
Hypertension 22 (36.7%) 8 (47.1%) 14 (32.6%) 0.376
Diabetes mellitus 14 (23.3%) 4 (23.5%) 10 (23.3%) 1.000
Fever 45 (75.0%) 14 (82.4%) 31 (72.1%) 0.520
Cough/expectoration 49 (81.7%) 11 (64.7%) 38 (88.4%) 0.059
Initial body temperature (°C) 37.40 ± 0.99 37.44 ± 1.15 37.38 ± 0.94 0.722
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 90.9 ± 17.3 89.3 ± 18.1 91.6 ± 17.2 0.785
Respiratory failure at admission 26 (43.3%) 11 (64.7%) 15 (34.9%) 0.036
Blood leukocyte count (109/L) 10.01 ± 5.60 9.89 ± 5.74 10.06 ± 5.61 0.994
Blood neutrophil count (109/L) 8.69 ± 5.29 8.61 ± 5.35 8.72 ± 5.34 0.993
Blood lymphocyte count (/μL) 867 ± 978 877 ± 1300 863 ± 836 0.450
Albumin (g/L) 29.8 ± 4.8 28.7 ± 5.1 30.2 ± 4.6 0.352
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 82.3 ± 282.8 48.8 ± 53.0 95.8 ± 333.8 0.847
Creatinine (μmol/L) 83.8 ± 81.3 81.9 ± 59.3 84.5 ± 89.3 0.854
Urea (mmol/L) 9.41 ± 6.65 12.33 ± 7.72 8.22 ± 5.86 0.011
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 71.2 ± 63.6 78.3 ± 67.8 67.1 ± 62.0 0.407
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 537.6 ± 424.8 710.0 ± 588.5 425.5 ± 227.2 0.146
PCT (ng/ml)     0.012
 < 0.5 39 (65.0%) 7 (41.2%) 32 (74.4%)  
 0.5–2 9 (15.0%) 2 (11.8%) 7 (16.3%)  
 2–10 9 (15.0%) 6 (35.3%) 3 (7.0%)  
 > 10 3 (5.0%) 2 (11.8%) 1 (2.3%)  
CMV viremia 19 (31.7%) 8 (47.1%) 11 (25.6%) 0.107
ESBL production 22/51 (43.1%) 10/14 (71.4%) 12/37 (32.4%) 0.012
Carbapenem resistance 5 (8.3%) 2 (11.8%) 3 (7.0%) 0.616
Bacteremia 11 (18.3%) 5 (29.4%) 6 (14.0%) 0.265
Outcomes
Change of antibiotics due to clinical deterioration 22 (36.7%) 12 (70.6%) 10 (23.3%) 0.001
Septic shock 14 (23.3%) 10 (58.8%) 4 (9.3%) < 0.001
ICU admission 38 (63.3%) 16 (94.1%) 22 (51.2%) 0.002
Mechanical ventilation 26 (43.3%) 15 (88.2%) 11 (25.6%) < 0.001
Length of ICU stay (days) 17.6 ± 19.5 16.2 ± 14.8 18.6 ± 22.7 0.939
Length of hospital stay (days) 27.5 ± 20.9 20.5 ± 17.5 30.4 ± 21.7 0.103
In-hospital mortality 17 (28.3%)    
  1. Data were presented as mean ± SD or numbers (%)
  2. aPulmonary diseases included interstitial lung disease (20 cases), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1 case), asthma (1 case), bronchiectasis (1 case), inactive pulmonary tuberculosis (2 cases), diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (2 cases) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (2 cases)