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Table 2 Unconditional logistic regression analysis of child, parental, domestic and environmental characteristics associated with S. aureus colonisation in Umtata participants

From: Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in African children from rural and urban communities with atopic dermatitis

Explanatory variable Colonised a, n (%) Not colonised, n (%) OR [95% CI] p-value aOR [95% CI] p-value
AD: case 31 (28) 27 (24) 7.54 [2.92–19.47] 0.000 8.02 [1.28–50.37] 0.026
Sex: male 21 (19) 46 (42) 0.74 [0.33–1.67] 0.469 0.83 [0.32–2.16] 0.696
Child characteristics
Breastfeeding 10 (9) 25 (23) 0.69 [0.29–1.63] 0.395 1.46 [0.48–4.47] 0.503
 Allergic rhinitis 1 (1) 6 (7) 0.43 [0.05–3.79] 0.449 Excluded  
 Asthma § 0 (0) 0 (0) Omitted d   Excluded  
 Food allergy 5 (5) 6 (5) 1.69 [0.48–5.95] 0.413 Excluded  
Mode of delivery: vaginal 29 (26) 57 (51) 0.9 [0.36–2.29] 0.833 Excluded  
Incomplete immunisation status 2 (2) 2 (2) 1.97 [0.27–14.58] 0.506 Excluded  
Antibiotic exposure 33 (30) 58 (52) 1.71 [0.57–5.12] 0.34 1.54 [0.39–6] 0.536
Large family size b 15 (14) 35 (32) 0.71 [0.32–1.57] 0.395 0.94 [0.36–2.44] 0.903
Animal exposure c 27 (24) 65 (59) 0.3 [0.11–0.83] 0.021 0.53 [0.11–2.54] 0.429
Fossil fuel exposure
 Electricity + gas 31 (28) 38 (34) 4.08 [1.59–10.44] 0.003 0.35 [0.05–2.47] 0.295
 Kerosene + paraffin 28 (25) 36 (32) 2.88 [1.22–6.77] 0.015 0.69 [0.19–2.49] 0.571
 Indoor fire 1 (1) 3 (3) 0.63 [0.06–6.27] 0.694 Excluded  
 Outdoor fire 10 (9) 39 (35) 0.31 [0.13–0.73] 0.008 0.54 [0.17–1.67] 0.283
 Wood + coal 3 (3) 28 (25) 0.14 [0.04–0.49] 0.002 0.14 [0.02–0.99] 0.048
Maternal factors
 Allergic rhinitis 0 (0) 4 (4) Omitted d   Excluded  
 Asthma 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.95 [0.12–32] 0.641 Excluded  
 Atopic dermatitis 1 (1) 1 (1) 1.95 [0.12–32] 0.641 Excluded  
 Food allergy 1 (1) 2 (2) 0.96 [0.08–10.93] 0.973 Excluded  
 Smoking 0 (0) 1 (1) Omitted   Excluded  
 Pregnant smoker 0 (0) 1 (1) Omitted   Excluded  
 Animal exposure c 31 (28) 65 (59) 0.55 [0.18–1.64] 0.28 1.93 [0.37–10.16] 0.438
Paternal factors
 Allergic rhinitis § 0 (0) 3 (3) Omitted   Excluded  
 Asthma § 1 (1) 2 (2) 0.96 [0.08–10.93] 0.973 Excluded  
 Atopic dermatitis § 0 (0) 1 (1) Omitted   Excluded  
 Food allergy § 0 (0) 1 (1) Omitted   Excluded  
 Smoking 5 (5) 10 (9) 0.94 [0.3–2.98] 0.267 Excluded  
  1. AD atopic dermatitis, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; § No within group variance; a Colonisation with Staphylococcus aureus; b Large family size is arbitrarily defined as 7 or more members within a household; c Animal exposure refers to farm animals; d Independent variables omitted due to dependency in the regression model