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Table 1 Participant characteristics of atopic dermatitis cases and healthy controls

From: Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in African children from rural and urban communities with atopic dermatitis

Explanatory variable Umtata Cape Town
Total, n (%) Case, n (%) Control, n (%) p-value Total, n (%) Case, n (%) Control, n (%) p-value
Total 111 (100) 58 (52) 53 (48) 0.502a 74 (100) 43 (58) 31 (42) 0.049a
Age (months)
 Mean [standard deviation] 21.27 [7.15] 21.03 [7.41] 21.53 [6.90] 0.718 24.19 [7.37] 23.98 [7.44] 24.48 [7.38] 0.773
Sex
 Female 42 (39) 24 (43) 18 (34) 0.431 36 (49) 19 (44) 17 (55) 0.480
 Male 67 (61) 32 (57) 35 (66) 38 (51) 24 (56) 14 (45)
AD severity
 Moderate 23 (40) 23 (40)   21 (49) 21 (49)  
 Severe 35 (60) 35 (60)   22 (51) 22 (51)  
Atopic disease
 Food allergy 11 (10) 10 (17) 1 (2) 0.009 9 (12) 9 (21) 0 (0) 0.008
 Asthma 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   1 (1) 1 (3) 0 (0) 1.000
 Allergic rhinitis 7 (8) 1 (2) 6 (11) 0.242 1 (1) 1 (3) 0 (0) 1.000
Mode of birth
 Caesarean section 25 (23) 14 (24) 11 (21) 0.821 33 (46) 20 (49) 13 (42) 0.637
 Vaginal 86 (77) 44 (76) 42 (79) 39 (54) 21 (51) 18 (58)
Breastfeeding 35 (32) 10 (17) 25 (47) 0.001 9 (12) 7 (16) 2 (6) 0.288
Antibiotic exposure 92 (82) 49 (83) 43 (81) 0.810 54 (72) 30 (70) 24 (77) 0.598
Immunisation status
 Complete 107 (96) 56 (95) 52 (98) 0.620 64 (86) 33 (77) 31 (100) 0.004
 Incomplete 4 (4) 3 (5) 1 (2) 10 (14) 10 (23) 0 (0)
Large family a 62 (55) 30 (52) 32 (60) 0.445 24 (32) 14 (33) 10 (32) 1.000
Animal exposure 93 (84) 39 (67) 53 (100) 0.001 2 (3) 2 (6) 0 (0) 0.495
Parental education
 Primary 8 (7) 2 (3) 6 (11) 0.001 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.025
 Secondary 70 (63) 31 (53) 39 (74) 33 (45) 14 (33) 19 (61)
 Tertiary 31 (28) 25 (43) 6 (11) 40 (54) 28 (65) 12 (39)
 Other 2 (2) 0 (0) 2 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Maternal factors
 Animal exposure 96 (86) 44 (76) 52 (98) 0.001 4 (60) 4 (11) 0 (0) 0.120
 Pregnant smoking 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0.482 3 (45) 0 (0) 3 (10) 0.094
 Smoking 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0.477 4 (6) 1 (3) 3 (10) 0.324
 Asthma 2 (2) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0.496 6 (8) 4 (10) 2 (6) 1.000
 Allergic rhinitis 4 (4) 4 (7) 0 (0) 0.120 5 (68) 4 (10) 1 (3) 0.387
 Atopic dermatitis 2 (2) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0.496 3 (4) 2 (5) 1 (3) 1.000
 Food allergy 3 (3) 2 (3) 1 (2) 1.000 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1.000
Paternal factors
 Smoking 15 (14) 9 (16) 6 (12) 0.589 20 (31) 11 (31) 9 (31) 1.000
 Asthma 3 (3) 3 (5) 0 (0) 0.245 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Allergic rhinitis 3 (3) 3 (5) 0 (0) 0.245 7 (10) 7 (17) 0 (0) 0.018
 Atopic dermatitis 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1.000 2 (3) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0.505
 Food allergy 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1.000 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1.000
Household factors
 Electricity + gas 69 (62) 56 (97) 13 (25) 0.001 66 (99) 35 (97) 31 (100) 1.000
 Kerosene + paraffin 64 (58) 44 (76) 20 (38) 0.001 43 (64) 21 (58) 22 (71) 0.317
 Paraffin 38 (34) 6 (10) 32 (60) 0.001 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Indoor fire 4 (4) 2 (3) 2 (4) 1.000 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Outdoor fire 49 (44) 12 (21) 37 (70) 0.001 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Wood + fire 31 (28) 4 (7) 27 (51) 0.001 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
  1. Bold text indicates statistical significance. AD atopic dermatitis, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range; a Large family is arbitrarily defined as 7 or more members living within one household