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Table 1 Patient characteristics and outcome grouped by persistence and mortality

From: Cytokine measurements add value to clinical variables in predicting outcomes for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

  Overall
N = 606
Persistence (Day 4) Mortality
Resolve
(n = 462)
Persist
(n = 144)
p-value Survivor
(n = 554)
Non-survivor (n = 52) p-value
Age (mean, std) 59+/−16.2 58 +/− 16.5 60+/− 14.8 0.21 64+/− 15.2 58 +/− 16.2 0.03
Male 414 (68%) 321 (70%) 93 (65%) 0.31 383 (69%) 31 (60%) 0.11
Black race 64 (11%) 40 (8.7%) 24 (17%) 0.01 58 (11%) 6 (12%) 0.81
Comorbidities
Hypertension 319 (53%) 231 (50%) 88 (61%) 0.02 289 (52%) 30 (58%) 0.47
Hyperlipidemia 133 (22%) 97 (21%) 36 (25%) 0.36 120 (22%) 13 (25%) 0.60
Diabetes 247 (41%) 177 (38%) 70 (49%) 0.03 225 (41%) 22 (42%) 0.88
CHFa 83 (14%) 66 (14%) 17 (12%) 0.49 67 (12%) 16 (31%) 0.001
CADb 92 (15%) 66 (14%) 26 (18%) 0.29 75 (14%) 17 (33%) 0.001
Immunosuppressedc 43 (7.1%) 29 (6.3%) 14 (9.7%) 0.16 36 (6.5%) 7 (13%) 0.062
Dialysisf 125 (21%) 93 (20%) 32 (22%) 0.74 111 (20%) 14 (27%) 0.48
Infection characteristics
MRSAd 207 (34%) 149 (32%) 58 (40%) 0.09 185 (33%) 22 (42%) 0.22
Source of bacteremiae,f     0.65    0.003
High 134 (22%) 99 (21%) 35 (24%) 0.49 115 (21%) 19 (37%) 0.01
Intermediate 349 (58%) 271 (59%) 78 (55%) 0.38 329 (59%) 20 (39%) 0.01
Low 121 (20%) 91 (20%) 30 (21%) 0.72 109 (20%) 12 (24%) 0.58
Procedure performed for source controlf 280 (46%) 212 (46%) 68 (48%) 0.77 264 (48%) 16 (31%) 0.02
Complicated SAB
 Endocarditis 48 (7.9%) 25 (5.4%) 23 (16%) < 0.001 42 (7.6%) 6 (12%) 0.29
 Implanted prostheses 221 (37%) 166 (36%) 55 (38%) 0.62 201 (36%) 20 (39%) 0.77
 Tmax > 38.3 at 72 h after abxf 48 (10%) 26 (7.4%) 22 (18%) 0.0015 38 (8.8%) 10 (27%) 0.002
 Metastatic complicationf 118 (20%) 77 (17%) 41 (28%) 0.0026 104 (19%) 14 (27%) 0.20
Initial regimen vancomycin with beta-lactam 292 (48%) 232 (50%) 60 (42%) 0.07 266 (48%) 26 (50%) 0.07
Pitt Bacteremia Score (median, IQR) 1 (0,2) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 3) 0.19 1 (0, 2) 4 (2, 6) < 0.0001
  < 4 517 (87%) 395 (87%) 122 (87%) Ref 493 (90%) 24 (47%) Ref
  ≥ 4 79 (13%) 60 (13%) 19 (13%) > 0.99 52 (10%) 27 (53%) < 0.0001
qSOFA score (median, IQR)f 1 (0,2) 1 (0,2) 1 (1,2) 0.21 1 (0, 2) 2 (1, 2) < 0.0001
  < 2 365 (61%) 286 (62%) 79 (56%) Ref 351 (64%) 14 (27%) Ref
  ≥ 2 236 (39%) 173 (38%) 63 (44%) 0.17 198 (36%) 38 (73%) < 0.0001
Sepsisf 490 (81%) 365 (80%) 125 (87%) 0.051 441 (80%) 49 (94%) 0.009
Severe sepsisf 257 (42%) 179 (40%) 78 (55%) 0.002 214 (39%) 43 (83%) < 0.0001
Septic shock f 70 (12%) 43 (9.5%) 27 (19%) 0.004 46 (8.4%) 24 (46%) < 0.0001
Required ICU stayf 240 (40%) 169 (37%) 71 (50%) 0.008 192 (35%) 48 (92%) < 0.0001
Duration of SAB (median, IQR) 1 (1,3) 1 (1,2) 5 (4, 7) < 0.0001 1 (1,3) 3 (1, 5) 0.004
30-day mortality 52 (8.6%) 27 (5.8%) 25 (17%) < 0.0001 0 52 (100%)
  1. aCHF: congestive heart failure, bCAD: coronary artery disease, cImmunosuppressed: receipt of cancer chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, dMRSA: methicillin-resistant S. aureus. eSource definitions for mortality risk: Low-risk sources - intravenous catheter, urinary tract infection, ear-nose-larynx, gynecologic sources, and several manipulation-related sources (including digestive endoscopy, arterial catheterization, and sclerosis of esophageal varices); intermediate-risk sources - osteoarticular, soft-tissue, and unknown sources; high-risk sources - endovascular sources, lower respiratory tract, intraarticular, and central nervous system foci
  2. Ref Reference
  3. fNumber of patients included for: Dialysis (Resolve 461, Persist 144; Survivor 553, Non-survivor 52), Source of bacteremia (Resolve 461, Persist 143; Survivor 553, Non-survivor 51), Source control (Resolve 460, Persist 143; Survivor 551, Non-survivor 52), Tmax > 38.3 at 72 h after antibiotics (Resolve 350, Persist 121; Survivor 434, Non-survivor 37), Metastatic complication (Resolve 461, Persist 144; Survivor 553, Non-survivor 52), Pitt Bacteremia Score (Resolve 455, Persist 141; Survivor 545, Non-survivor 51), qSOFA score (Resolve 459, Persist 142; Survivor 549, Non-survivor 52), Sepsis (Resolve 459, Persist 144; Survivor 551, Non-survivor 52), Severe sepsis (Resolve 452, Persist 143; Survivor 543, Non-survivor 52), Septic shock (Resolve 455, Persist 144; Survivor 547, Non-survivor 52), Required ICU stay (Resolve 458, Persist 143; Survivor 549, Non-survivor 52),