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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to 90-day readmission in septic patients

From: Independent predictors for 90-day readmission of emergency department patients admitted with sepsis: a prospective cohort study

  Readmitted
N = 237 (35.8%)
Not readmitted
N = 425 (64.2%)
Difference
(95% CI)
Female gender; n(%)a 105 (44.3) 187 (44.0) 0.3(÷7.5–8.2)
Age; median years (IQR)a 74.9 (64.7–83.9) 74.8 (66.6–84.4) 0.1(÷1.9–2.3)
Medical history
 Charlson Comorbidity Score; n(%)
  0 46 (19.4) 125 (29.4) 10.0 (3.4–16.6)
  1–2 108 (45.6) 210 (49.4) 3.8(÷11.7–4.1)
  3 + b 83 (35.0) 90 (21.2) 13.8 (6.6–21.0)
   Heart failurea 39 (16.5) 63 (14.8) 1.7(÷4.1–7.5)
   Myocardial infarction/Ischemic heart diseasea 33 (13.9) 53 (12.5) 1.4(÷4.0–6.8)
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasea 64 (27.0) 96 (22.6) 4.4(÷2.5–11.3)
   Malignant diseaseb,c 47 (19.8) 47 (11.0) 8.8 (2.9–14.9)
   Diabetesa,d 55 (23.2) 85 (20.0) 3.2(÷3.4–9.8)
   Kidney diseasea,e 24 (10.1) 33 (7.8) 2.3(÷2.3–6.9)
   Liver diseasea,f 3 (1.3) 10 (2.4) 1.1(÷1.1–3.3)
   Cerebrovascular diseasea,g 49 (20.7) 75 (17.7) 3.0(÷3.3–9.3)
   Hypertensiona 89 (37.6) 154 (36.2) 1.4(÷6.2–9.1)
 History of sepsis within last year before admission; n(%)b 87 (36.7) 106 (24.9) 11.8 (4.4–19.2)
Admission
 Length of stay; days (IQR)a 7 (4–10) 6 (3–9) 1(÷1–0)
Atrial fibrillation
 None, n(%)a 175 (73.8) 323 (76.0) 2.2(÷9.1–4.7)
 New-onset atrial fibrillation; n(%)a 9 (3.8) 23 (5.4) 1.6(÷4.8–1.7)
 History of atrial fibrillation; n(%)a 53 (22.4) 79 (18.6) 3.8(÷2.7–10.3)
Severity of disease
 Total SOFA score (IQR)a 3 (2–4) 3 (2–3) 0
 Systolic blood pressure; mmHg, median (IQR)a,h 122 (105–144) 126 (109–147) 3(÷1–8)
 Systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, n(%)a 13 (5.6) 20 (4.8) 0.8(÷2.8–4.4)
 Respiratory rate; min−1, median (IQR)a 20 (17–24) 20 (18–24) 0
 Heart rate; min−1, median (IQR)a 90 (80–105) 93 (77–109) 2(÷2–5)
 O2-Saturation; %, median (IQR)a 95 (92–97) 95 (93–97) 0
 Core temperature; oCelcius, median (IQR)a,i 37.2 (36.6–38.0) 37.4 (36.7–38.4) 0.2 (0–0.4)
 Altered mental state; n (%)a 62 (26.2) 117 (27.5) 1.3(÷8.3–5.7)
 qSOFA score ≥ 2 on admission; n(%)a 48 (20.3) 78 (18.4) 1.9(÷4.4–8.2)
 SIRS criteria ≥2 on admission, n(%)a 131 (55.3) 263 (61.9) 6.6(÷1.2–14.4)
Laboratory results
 CRP; median (IQR)b 65 (23–123) 82 (24–160) 10.9 (1.0–21.9)
 White blood cell count ×109/L, median (IQR)a 12.1 (8.9–16.1) 11.6 (8.6–16.6) 0.1(÷1.0–0.8)
 Creatinine, μmol/L, median (IQR)a 115 (80–178) 113 (75–168) 5.0(÷15.0–4.0)
 Bilirubin, mmol/L, median (IQR)a 10 (7–16) 10 (7–18) 1 (0–2)
 Platelets, ×109/L, median (IQR)a 216 (153–288) 205 (144–283) 10(÷26–5)
 Lactate; mmol/L, median (IQR)a,j 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 0.1(÷0.1–0.2)
 Glucose, mmol/L, median (IQR)b 6.8 (5.9–8.2) 7.3 (6.0–8.9) 0.4 (0.1–0.7)
Admission to intensive care unit, n (%)a 24 (10.1) 56 (13.2) 3.1(÷8.1–1.9)
 Vasopressor, n (%)b 1 (0.4) 10 (2.4) 2.0 (0.3–3.7)
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%)a 8 (3.4) 23 (5.4) 2.0(÷1.2–5.2)
 Dialysis, n (%)a 1 (0.4) 2 (0.5) 0.1(÷1.1–0.9)
Positive blood cultures, n (%)a,k 18 (12.6) 38 (14.1) 1.5(÷6.8–3.9)
Source of infection
 Pulmonary, n (%)a 137 (57.8) 252 (59.3) 1.5(÷9.3–6.3)
 Urine, n (%)a 47 (19.8) 101 (23.8) 4.0(÷10.5–2.5)
 Abdominal, n (%)a 26 (11.0) 40 (9.4) 1.6(÷3.3–6.5)
 Skin, n(%)a 19 (8.0) 26 (6.1) 1.9(÷2.2–6.0)
 Endocarditis, n(%)a 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 0.2(÷0.7–1.1)
 Central nervous system, n (%)a 1 (0.4) 3 (0.7) 0.3(÷1.4–0.8)
 Facial/teeth, n(%)a 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 1.9(÷2.2–6.0)
 Devices/implants 0 0
 Others, n(%)a 3 (1.3) 0 1.3(÷0.1–2.7)
 Unknown, n(%)a 19 (8.0) 35 (8.2) 0.2(÷4.5–4.1)
  > 1 focus, n(%)a 18 (7.6) 33 (7.8) 0.2(÷4.4–4.0)
  1. CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, qSOFA quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SIRS Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. aNinety-five percent CI for the median difference or 95% CI for the difference of proportions included zero
  3. bNinety-five percent CI for the median difference or 95% CI for the difference of proportions did not include zero
  4. cTumor without metastasis, leukemia, lymphoma or metastatic tumors
  5. dDiabetes with or without end organ damage
  6. eMild or severe kidney disease
  7. fMild or severe liver disease
  8. gHistory of cerebrovascular disease including transient ischemic attack or a condition with hemiplegia
  9. hNine patients with missing blood pressure
  10. iFifteen patients with missing temperature
  11. j(131/237 and 245/425) with measurement of lactate
  12. kA total of 413 patients with blood cultures obtained