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Table 2 Characteristics of hospitalized children with PIV-associated respiratory illness compared to other-viral and virus-negative respiratory illness

From: Clinical features of parainfluenza infections among young children hospitalized for acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan

  PIV only*
(n = 96)
No. (%)
Other virus, not PIV
(n = 2413)
No. (%)
No virus
(n = 534)
No. (%)
p-value+
Female sex 39 (40.6) 954 (39.5) 209 (39.1) 0.960
Median age, months (IQR) 4.2 (1.7–10.8) 3.8 (1.8–8.5) 2.3 (1.1–7.6) < 0.001
Age group
  < 6 months 54 (56.3) 1544 (64.0) 382 (71.5) 0.001
 6 to < 12 months 19 (19.8) 499 (20.7) 79 (14.8)  
 12 to < 24 months 23 (24.0) 370 (15.3) 73 (13.7)  
Received influenza vaccine 0 (0.0) 5 (0.21) 1 (0.2) 0.264
Breastfed 78 (81.3) 2034 (84.3) 453 (84.8) 0.674
Any underlying medical conditiona 12 (12.5) 269 (11.2) 75 (14.0) 0.164
Asthma/reactive airway disease 1 (1.0) 65 (2.7) 10 (1.9) 0.285
Household smoke exposure 74 (77.1) 1851 (76.7) 406 (76.0) 0.939
Symptom duration prior to admission 3 (1.5–4) 3 (2–5) 2 (1–3) 0.002
Antibiotics during hospitalization 89 (92.7) 2193 (90.9) 489 (91.6) 0.746
Clinical presentation
 Fever/feverishb 60 (62.5) 1279 (53.0) 347 (65.0) < 0.001
 Coughb 68 (70.8) 1990 (82.5) 207 (38.8) < 0.001
 Shortness of breathb 48 (50.0) 1543 (64.0) 172 (32.2) < 0.001
 Flaring/Retractionsc 32 (33.3) 1099 (45.5) 121 (22.7) < 0.001
 Retractions, onlyc 5 (5.2) 240 (10.0) 30 (5.6) 0.003
 Wheezingc 51 (53.1) 1455 (60.3) 189 (35.4) < 0.001
Admission diagnosis
 Reactive airway disease 4 (4.2) 123 (5.1) 14 (2.6) 0.047
 Bronchiolitis 10 (10.4) 483 (20.0) 31 (5.8) < 0.001
 Bronchopneumonia 34 (35.4) 818 (33.9) 121 (22.7) < 0.001
 Croup 2 (2.1) 6 (0.3) 1 (0.2) 0.005
 Febrile seizure 5 (5.2) 47 (2.0) 28 (5.2) < 0.001
 Pneumonia 14 (14.6) 338 (14.0) 34 (6.4) < 0.001
 Pneumonitis 0 (0.0) 1 (0.04) 1 (0.19) 0.477
 Pertussis-like cough 6 (6.3) 182 (7.5) 22 (4.1) 0.018
 Rule-out sepsis 27 (28.1) 559 (23.2) 282 (52.8) < 0.001
Classified as LRTI 68 (70.8) 1878 (77.8) 230 (43.1) < 0.001
Chest radiograph
 Abnormal 60/90 (66.7) 1734/2302 (75.3) 203/454 (44.7) < 0.001
Required supplemental oxygen 22 (22.9) 829/2384 (34.8) 122/532 (22.9) < 0.001
Required ICU admission 6 (6.3) 205 (8.5) 62 (11.6) 0.048
Required mechanical ventilation 3 (3.1) 82/2383 (3.4) 22/532 (4.1) 0.717
Length of stay (days), median (IQR) 5 (3–8) 5 (3–7) 5 (3–8) 0.154
Death 0 (0.0) 21 (1.0) 9 (2.0) 0.140
  1. * One child with both PIV 3 and PIV 4 serotypes is included in the PIV only group
  2. + p < 0.05 considered statistically significant, indicated by bold text
  3. a UMC defined as at least one of the following: diabetes, heart disease, Down syndrome, kidney disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer, genetic/metabolic, cerebral palsy, neurological, mental retardation/developmental delay, seizure disorder, chronic diarrhea (eg, > 2 weeks), gastroesophageal reflux disease, immunodeficiency, asthma/reactive airway disease, liver disease
  4. b Reported by parent/legal guardian
  5. c Collected through clinical exam