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Table 1 Characteristics of hospitalized children with PIV-1, PIV-2, PIV-3, and PIV-4 including co-detections with other pathogens

From: Clinical features of parainfluenza infections among young children hospitalized for acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan

  PIV-1
(n = 34)
No. (%)
PIV-2
(n = 13)
No. (%)
PIV-3a
(n = 125)
No. (%)
PIV-4a
(n = 46)
No. (%)
p-value
Female sex 16 (47.1) 6 (46.2) 48 (38.4) 21 (45.7) 0.714
Median age, months (IQR) 9.0 (3.5–16.1) 5.4 (2.6–8.6) 3.2 (1.7–8.9) 2.6 (1.7–9.1) 0.003
Age group
  < 6 months 13 (38.2) 7 (53.9) 80 (64.0) 29 (63.0) 0.028
 6 to < 12 months 7 (20.6) 5 (38.5) 23 (18.4) 8 (17.4)
 12 to < 24 months 14 (41.2) 1 (7.7) 22 (17.6) 9 (19.6)
Received influenza vaccine 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.0) 0 (0) 0.861
Breastfed, any 30 (88.2) 13 (100) 92 (73.6) 37 (80.4) 0.059
Any underlying medical conditionb 3 (8.8) 2 (15.4) 19 (15.2) 6 (13.0) 0.810
Household smoke exposure 23 (67.7) 10 (76.9) 95 (76.0) 37 (80.4) 0.620
Symptom duration prior to admission, days (IQR) 3.5 (2–5) 2 (2–4) 3 (2–5) 2 (1–5) 0.253
Antibiotics prior to admission 17 (50.0) 3 (23.1) 42 (33.6) 19 (41.3) 0.210
Antibiotics during hospitalization 33 (97.1) 9 (69.2) 115 (92.0) 44 (95.7) 0.010
Clinical presentation
 Fever/feverishc 21 (61.8) 9 (69.2) 77 (61.6) 27 (58.7) 0.923
 Coughc 30 (88.2) 10 (76.9) 90 (72.0) 36 (78.3) 0.258
 Shortness of breathc 23 (67.7) 9 (69.2) 55 (44.0) 28 (60.9) 0.045
 Flaring/Retractionsd 14 (41.2) 5 (38.5) 36 (28.8) 15 (32.6) 0.541
 Retractions, onlyd 2 (5.9) 1 (7.7) 4 (3.2) 4 (8.7) 0.492
 Wheezingd 20 (58.8) 6 (46.2) 62 (49.6) 22 (47.8) 0.750
Admission diagnosis
 Reactive airway disease 3 (8.8) 1 (7.7) 4 (3.2) 1 (2.2) 0.387
 Bronchiolitis 6 (17.7) 3 (23.1) 14 (11.2) 10 (21.7) 0.275
 Bronchopneumonia 14 (41.2) 4 (30.8) 48 (38.4) 13 (28.3) 0.563
 Croup 2 (5.9) 1 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.010
 Febrile seizure 2 (5.9) 1 (7.7) 4 (3.2) 1 (2.2) 0.697
 Pneumonia 4 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 12 (9.6) 5 (10.9) 0.649
 Pertussis-like cough 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (7.2) 4 (8.7) 0.269
 Rule-out sepsis 5 (14.7) 3 (23.1) 40 (32.0) 11 (23.9) 0.211
Classified as LRTI 28 (82.4) 9 (69.2) 84 (67.2) 31 (67.4) 0.382
Chest radiograph
 Abnormal 23/31 (74.2) 8/11 (72.7) 78/116 (67.2) 28/44 (63.4) 0.785
Required supplemental oxygen 11 (32.4) 2 (15.4) 35 (28.0) 14 (30.4) 0.695
Required ICU admission 5 (14.7) 0 (0.0) 9 (7.2) 3 (6.5) 0.318
Required mechanical ventilation 2 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 5 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0.393
Length of stay (days), median (IQR) 3 (2–6) 5 (3–8) 6 (3–8) 5 (3–8) 0.161
Codetected with ≥1 other virus 21 (61.8) 8 (61.5) 64 (51.2) 30 (65.2) 0.338
Death 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.2) 0.431
  1. a Individual serotypes detected and distinguished by PCR; excludes 3 cases of codetection of PIV-3 and PIV-4
  2. + p < 0.05 considered statistically significant, indicated by bold text
  3. b UMC defined as at least one of the following: diabetes, heart disease, Down syndrome, kidney disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer, genetic/metabolic, cerebral palsy, neurological, mental retardation/developmental delay, seizure disorder, chronic diarrhea (eg, > 2 weeks), gastroesophageal reflux disease, immunodeficiency, asthma/reactive airway disease, liver disease
  4. c Reported by parent/legal guardian
  5. d Collected through clinical exam