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Table 6 Potential risk factors for mortality

From: Informing the public health response to COVID-19: a systematic review of risk factors for disease, severity, and mortality

Potential risk factor Study supports risk Study does not support risk or is neutral
Sex Men more at risk (descriptive) [21] Sex distribution similar amongst patients who died and survived (descriptive) [25, 35, 46, 47]
Confidence interval for males versus females crosses the null (univariable regression) [44]
Age Over 60 years particularly at risk (descriptive) [21]
8% case fatality ratio in 70–79 year olds and 14.8% in those over 80. Overall figure 2.3% (descriptive) [45]
Median age in those who died 52 years, 65 years among survivors (descriptive) [46]
Over 50 years of age particularly at risk- 1.3% died 50–59 years, 3.6% 60–69 years, 8.0% 70–79 years, 14.8% 80 years plus; less than 1% all other age groups (descriptive) [25]
Risk begins to increase at approximately 50 years (statistical test, but graphical presentation) [35]
Median age in those who died 68 years, among those who survived 55 (statistical test) [47]
Over 61 years, increasing per 10 year age group (statistical test) [27]
65 years and older 6.17 the hazard rate of those under 65 (univariable regression) [44]
 
Smoking   Proportion of smokers similar among those who died versus those who did not (descriptive); one study had small numbers of smokers [21, 46]
Distribution of current smokers similar among survivors and non-survivors (univariable regression analysis, not included in multivariable model) [51]
Pregnancy   Proportion of women who were pregnant similar amongst patients who died versus survived (descriptive) [21]
Any comorbidity Presence of any comorbidity more common among those dying (descriptive) [21, 35, 46, 47, 51]  
Hypertension Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [3, 21, 25, 27]
Presence of condition more common among those dying (statistical test) [47, 51]
Confidence interval for individuals with and without the condition crosses the null (univariable regression) [44]
Cardiovascular disease/chronic heart disease Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [21, 25, 35, 45]
Presence of condition more common among those dying (statistical test) [47, 51]
Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive), sometimes small numbers with the condition [44, 46]
Diabetes Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [21, 25, 45, 46]
Presence of condition more common among those dying (statistical test) [47, 51]
Confidence interval for individuals with and without the condition crosses the null (univariable regression) [44]
Chronic respiratory/lung disease (chronic obstructive lung disease) Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [21, 45]
Presence of condition more common among those dying (statistical test) [51]
Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive) [46]
Respiratory infectious disease Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [25]  
Malignancy Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [3, 25] Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive), sometimes small numbers with the condition [46, 47, 51]
Cerebral infarction/ cerebrovascular disease Presence of condition more common among those dying (descriptive) [46] Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (statistical test); small numbers with the condition [47]
Chronic gastritis   Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (statistical test); small numbers with the condition [47]
Chronic kidney disease Presence of condition more common among those dying (statistical test); small numbers with the condition [51]  
Dementia   Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive); small numbers with the condition [46]
Malnutrition   Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive); small numbers with the condition [46]
Hepatitis B virus infection   Distribution dying in presence and absence of comorbidity similar (descriptive) [21]