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Table 4 Potential risk factors for disease

From: Informing the public health response to COVID-19: a systematic review of risk factors for disease, severity, and mortality

Potential risk factor Study supports risk Study does not support risk or is neutral
Age Patients older than those with COVID-19 and younger than those with MERS (descriptive) [40]
Younger ages (median 45 years) in patients with COVID-19 than other pneumonia (median 61) (statistical test) [22]
Increasing risk of positivity for SARS-CoV-2 among COVID-19 suspects (on the basis of symptoms/contact tracing) with age (odds ratio 1.02) but unclear categorisation of age (multivariable regression) [33]
Median age 60 years in those with COVID-19 and 61 in those with other viral pneumonia (descriptive) [30]
Mean age 50 years in COVID-19 patients vs. 44 in individuals with other pneumonia (statistical test) [24]
Sex Sex ratio skewed towards men for COVID-19, akin to MERS but not SARS (descriptive) [40]
Sex ratio skewed towards men for COVID-19 versus other viral pneumonia (descriptive) [30]
Greater proportion male in COVID-19 versus other pneumonia, although small sample size and thus low statistical certainty (statistical test) [24]
Increasing risk of positivity for SARS-CoV-2 among COVID-19 suspects (on the basis of symptoms/contact tracing) among males versus female (odds ratio 1.16) (logistic regression) [33]
Sex distribution similar amongst patients with COVID-19 and other pneumonia (statistical test) [22]
Ethnicity Higher percentage of Black and Asian individuals amongst COVID-19 patients than patients with other viral pneumonias (descriptive) [30]  
Index of multiple deprivation   Distribution of deprivation similar across COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia (descriptive) [30]
Body mass index Greater proportion of COVID-19 patients had higher body mass index than individuals with other pneumonia (descriptive) [37]
Greater proportion of COVID-19 patients had higher body mass index than individuals with other viral pneumonia (descriptive) [30]
 
Pregnancy   Percentage of women who were pregnant similar across COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia (descriptive) [30]
  1. MERS middle eastern respiratory syndrome, SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome