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Table 1 Symptoms and therapy (a), imaging findings (b), laboratory findings (c) and CSF characteristics (d)

From: Subacute cerebellar ataxia following respiratory symptoms of COVID-19: a case report

a) Symptoms and therapy
Respiratory symptoms day 1 – day 8
Anosmia and ageusia day 4 – day 15
Onset of ataxia day 16
Scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA)
•day 16 14 points
•day 35 5 points
•day 119 1 point
Therapy with acyclovir 3 × 840 mg/d iv day 29 – day 34
Therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/d iv day 29 – day 33
b) Imaging
 Brain-MRI Slight generalized brain atrophy with accentuation of atrophy in the cerebellum
 FDG-PET No signs of metabolically active malignancies, no cerebellar hyper- or hypometabolism
 Chest X-Ray and -CT scan Bipulmonary opacities accentuated in both upper lobes (inflammatory infiltrates)
c) Laboratory findings Result Normal range
Nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive on day 18 negative
negative on day 22
Creatin kinase (U/L) 38 <  190
Leukocyte count (109/L) 7.84 3.0–9.6
Thrombocyte count (109/L) 595 109/L 143–400
Hemoglobin (g/L) 150 134–170
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 3.9 < 5
Anti-neuronal antibodies* negative negative
d) CSF characteristics
  Day 23 Day 33  
CSF Cell Number (/ul) < 1 4 ≤4
CSF Lactate (mmol/L) 1.5 2.3 1.7–2.6
Glucose Ratio (CSF/Serum) 0.7 0.6 > 0.5
Albumin Ratio (CSF/Serum) 6.4 × 103   <  8.1 × 103
Virus PCRs in CSF** negative not done negative
Metagenomic virus sequencing not done negative negative
Oligoclonal bands (OCB)*** type 4 (identical OCB in CSF and serum) type 4 (identical OCB in CSF and serum) type 1 (no OCB in serum and CSF)
Intrathecal synthesis of IgG (i.e. CSF/serum antibody index) reactive against
•SARS-CoV-2 NP**** inconclusive 0.64 <  1.5
•SARS-CoV-2 S1 inconclusive 0.99
•SARS-CoV-2 S2 inconclusive 0.19
•Herpes simplex virus type 1/2 inconclusive negative <  1.5
•Varicella zoster virus inconclusive 1.01 <  1.5
•Borrelia burgdorferi negative not done <  1.5
  1. * anti-neuronal antibodies: anti-CASPR2, −LGI1, −Glut, −GlyR, −Hu, −Ri, −Yo, −Amphiphysin, −CV2 (CRMP5), −Ta/Ma2, −Ma1, −SOX1, −GAD65, −ZIC4, −Tr antibodies in CSF and serum; and anti-MOG in serum
  2. ** Viral pathogens: PCR for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), SARS-CoV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV);
  3. *** OCB type 1 no oligoclonal bands in CSF and serum, i.e. no intrathecal IgG production, OCB type 2 oligoclonal IgG bands only in CSF, i.e. intrathecal IgG production, OCB type 3 oligoclonal bands in CSF and serum with additional bands in CSF, i.e. intrathecal IgG production, OCB type 4 identical oligoclonal bands in CSF and serum, i.e. no intrathecal IgG production, OCB type 5 monoclonal IgG bands in CSF and serum
  4. **** CSF/serum-antibody index was calculated according to Reiber [14] and CSF/serum-antibody index > 1.5 indicated intrathecal antigen-specific antibody production
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