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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients undergoing testing with suspected COVID-19

From: Diagnostic performance of the combined nasal and throat swab in patients admitted to hospital with suspected COVID-19

  All
(n = 1368)
COVID-19a
(n = 496)
Alternative diagnosis
(n = 872)
P-value‡
Age, years 68 (53, 80) 71 (57, 82) 67 (51, 78) < 0.001
Sex     0.078
 Men 731 (53%) 281 (57%) 450 (52%)  
 Women 637 (47%) 215 (43%) 422 (48%)  
Ethnicity     0.83
 White 1087 (97%) 372 (97%) 715 (98%)  
 Other 29 (2.6%) 11 (2.9%) 18 (2.5%)  
Deprivationb     0.002
 1 (most deprivation) 239 (18%) 65 (13%) 174 (20%)  
 2 321 (24%) 116 (24%) 205 (24%)  
 3 236 (17%) 79 (16%) 157 (18%)  
 4 243 (18%) 93 (19%) 150 (17%)  
 5 (least deprivation) 319 (23%) 139 (28%) 180 (21%)  
Duration of symptoms, days 3.0 [1.0–5.0] 3.0 [2.0–7.0] 2.0 [1.0–4.0] < 0.001
Clinical features
 Fever 691 (51%) 322 (65%) 369 (42%) < 0.001
 Upper respiratory tract symptoms 141 (10%) 63 (13%) 78 (9%) 0.034
 Lower respiratory tract symptoms 891 (65%) 419 (85%) 472 (54%) < 0.001
 Systemic symptoms 501 (37%) 257 (52%) 244 (28%) < 0.001
 Neurological symptoms 309 (23%) 118 (24%) 191 (22%) 0.45
 Gastrointestinal symptoms 316 (23%) 107 (22%) 209 (24%) 0.36
 Lymphopenia 894 (65%) 406 (82%) 488 (56%) < 0.001
 Inflammation 986 (72%) 421 (86%) 565 (65%) < 0.001
 Radiological signs 409 (30%) 316 (64%) 93 (11%) < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 251 (18%) 96 (19%) 155 (18%) 0.51
 Ischemic heart disease 136 (10%) 45 (9.1%) 91 (11%) 0.44
 Heart failure 112 (8.3%) 38 (7.7%) 74 (8.6%) 0.62
 Stroke 82 (6.0%) 27 (5.4%) 55 (6.3%) 0.60
 COPD 206 (15%) 58 (12%) 148 (17%) 0.011
 Asthma 113 (8.3%) 30 (6.0%) 83 (9.5%) 0.033
 Liver cirrhosis 27 (2.0%) 8 (1.6%) 19 (2.2%) 0.60
 End stage kidney disease 25 (1.8%) 12 (2.4%) 13 (1.5%) 0.31
Medications at presentation
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs 336 (25%) 129 (26%) 207 (24%) 0.38
 Corticosteroids 223 (16%) 73 (15%) 150 (17%) 0.27
 Immunosuppressants 34 (2.5%) 15 (3.0%) 19 (2.2%) 0.43
  1. Values are No. (%) or median [inter-quartile range]
  2. Abbreviations: ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. aConfirmed or probable COVID-19 with no alternative diagnosis
  4. bScottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) quintiles
  5. ‡Comparison between patients with COVID-19 versus those with alternative diagnosis