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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients with and Without Influenza IgM positive

From: Clinical characteristics and outcome of influenza virus infection among adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study from Wuhan, China

Study Population With Influenza IgM positive (n = 73) Without Influenza IgM positive (n = 67) Total (n = 140) P value
Demographic
 Gender, Male 39 (53.4) 37 (55.2) 76 (54.3) 0.8310
 Age, media (IQR), yrs 62.0 (47.0, 70.0) 66.0 (55.0, 70.0) 65.0 (48.5, 70.0) 0.1118
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 32/70 (45.7) 30/67 (44.8) 62/137 (45.3) 0.9122
 Diabetes 12/72 (16.7) 10/67 (14.9) 22/139 (15.8) 0.7787
 Chronic respiratory disease 5/72 (6.9) 5/67 (7.5) 10/139 (7.2) 0.9060
 Cardiovascular disease 5/72 (6.9) 3/67 (4.5) 8/139 (5.8) 0.5301
 Malignancy 3/72 (4.2) 3/67 (4.5) 6/139 (4.3) 0.9282
 Chronic kidney disease 2/72 (2.8) 1/67 (1.5) 3/139 (2.2) 0.5983
Signs and symptoms
 Fever 55 (75.3) 53 (79.1) 108 (77.1) 0.5964
 Highest temperature, °C 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.7 (38.2, 39.0) 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 0.1274
 Chills 13 (17.8) 19 (28.4) 32 (22.9) 0.1375
 Cough 41/72 (56.9) 44/67 (65.7) 85/139 (61.2) 0.2915
 Productive cough 20/72 (27.8) 25/67 (37.3) 45/139 (32.4) 0.2299
 Chest pain/Chest congestion 19/72 (26.4) 13/67 (19.4) 32/139 (23.0) 0.3283
 Dyspnea 21/72 (29.2) 29/67 (43.3) 50/139 (36.0) 0.0831
 Diarrhea 18 (24.7) 25 (37.3) 43 (30.7) 0.1049
 Fatigue or myalgia 24/72 (33.3) 34/67 (50.7) 58/139 (41.7) 0.0375
Laboratory findings, median (IQR)
 White blood cells, × 109/mL 5.7 (4.2, 6.8) 5.7 (4.6, 7.9) 5.7 (4.4, 7.2) 0.3226
 Neutrophils, × 109/mL 3.9 (2.5, 4.8) 4.0 (2.6, 5.9) 3.9 (2.5, 5.3) 0.3600
 Lymphocytes, ×109/mL 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 0.3826
 Lymphocytes< 0.8 × 109/mL 18/73 (24.7) 18/66 (27.3) 36/139 (25.9) 0.7252
 Red blood cells, × 1012/mL 4.1 (3.6, 4.6) 4.0 (3.7, 4.4) 4.0 (3.7, 4.5) 0.4502
 Platelets, ×109/ mL 230.0 (173.0, 292.0) 253.0 (169.0, 340.0) 235.0 (169.0, 312.0) 0.3622
 Platelets< 100 × 109/mL 5/73 (6.8) 6/66 (9.1) 11/139 (7.9) 0.6249
 Hemoglobin, g/L 122.0 (114.0, 137.0) 125.5 (113.0, 137.0) 123.0 (113.0, 137.0) 0.9143
 ALT, U/L 23.0 (17.0, 40.0) 22.5 (15.0, 41.0) 23.0 (16.0, 41.0) 0.7373
 AST, U/L 26.0 (19.0, 37.0) 30.0 (19.0, 41.0) 28.0 (19.0, 39.0) 0.3370
 Albumin, g/L 36.1 (32.2, 38.3) 35.0 (31.4, 37.1) 35.2 (31.7, 38.1) 0.2945
 Creatinine, μmol/L 70.0 (60.0, 89.5) 70.0 (59.0, 87.0) 70.0 (59.0, 89.0) 0.8596
 LDH, U/L 268.5 (204.0, 329.5) 287.0 (235.0, 351.0) 281.0 (212.0, 334.0) 0.2419
 LDH > 245 U/L 44/72 (61.1) 47/65 (72.3) 91/137 (66.4) 0.1658
 Troponin> 15.6 pg/mL, No (%) 7/51 (13.7) 12/56 (21.4) 19/107 (17.8) 0.2977
 NT-proBNP, pg/mL 140.0 (60.0, 334.0) 157.0 (64.0, 459.0) 151.0 (63.0, 411.0) 0.2883
 NT-proBNP≥247 pg/mL, No (%) 29/57 (50.9) 35/58 (60.3) 64/115 (55.7) 0.3069
 CRP, mg/L 21.3 (4.1, 49.2) 34.7 (9.1, 73.4) 27.2 (6.1, 69.8) 0.1281
 CRP ≥ 1 mg/L, No (%) 57/61 (93.4) 47/49 (95.9) 104/110 (94.5) 0.5651
 IL-6, pg/mL 9.8 (4.2, 21.1) 6.8 (3.6, 23.2) 9.4 (3.9, 23.2) 0.5603
 IL-6 ≥ 7 pg/mL, No (%) 25/42 (59.5) 15/35 (42.9) 40/77 (51.9) 0.1450
 Ferritin, μg/L 522.1 (320.5, 729.0) 630.5 (310.2, 1519.9) 562.6 (320.5, 986.5) 0.0964
 Ferritin> 150 μg/L, No (%) 39/43 (90.7) 33/35 (94.3) 72/78 (92.3) 0.5495
 PT, s 13.7 (13.2, 14.3) 13.8 (13.4, 14.2) 13.8 (13.3, 14.3) 0.9762
 APTT, s 39.6 (35.8, 42.0) 39.5 (37.8, 45.8) 39.6 (36.6, 44.3) 0.0243
 APTT> 42 s, No (%) 17/72 (23.6) 28/64 (43.8) 45/136 (33.1) 0.0127
 FIB, g/L 4.9 (3.9, 6.0) 5.3 (4.3, 6.2) 5.0 (4.1, 6.1) 0.2374
 D-Dimer, μg/mL 0.7 (0.5, 1.7) 1.2 (0.5, 2.1) 1.0 (0.5, 2.0) 0.2371
 D-Dimer≥0.5 μg/mL, No (%) 53/73 (72.6) 45/64 (70.3) 98/137 (71.5) 0.7669
  1. Note. Data are presented as n (%) or median (IQR, interquartile range) for each parameter. P values were calculated by chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate
  2. Abbreviations IQR interquartile range, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, LDH lactic Acid dehydrogenase, CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, PT prothrombintime, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, FIB fibrinogen