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Table 1 Characteristics of fatal measles cases and matched non-fatal measles controls — Romania, 2016–2018

From: Risk factors for measles deaths among children during a Nationwide measles outbreak – Romania, 2016–2018

Characteristic Cases (n = 50)
n (%)
Controls (n = 250)
n (%)
p valuea
Case classification (yes/no)
 Lab-confirmed 46 (92%) 185 (74%)  
 Epidemiologically linked 4 (8%) 65 (26%)  
Demographic Factors
Age at Rash Onsetc (yes/no)
   < 1 year 33 (66.0) 165 (66.0)  
  1 year 10 (20.0) 50 (20.0)  
  2 years 4 (8.0) 20 (8.0)  
  3 years 2 (4.0) 10 (4.0)  
  4 years 1 (2.0) 5 (2.0)  
Sexc (yes/no)
  Male 23 (46.0) 115 (46.0)  
  Female 27 (54.0) 135 (54.0)  
Region of residencec (yes/no)
  Center 2 (4.0) 10 (4.0)  
  North-East 15 (30.0) 75 (30.0)  
  North-West 3 (6.0) 15 (6.0)  
  South 3 (6.0) 15 (6.0)  
  South-East 7 (14.0) 35 (14.0)  
  South-West 6 (12.0) 30 (12.0)  
  West 14 (28.0) 70 (28.0)  
Medical and Vaccination History
Received ≥ 1 Dose of Vaccine (yes/no)
  MCV 6 (12.0) 43 (17.2) 0.288
  Valid MCVd 1 (2.0) 19 (7.6) 0.326b
  Hib/Hexavalent 20 (40.0) 145 (58.0) 0.124
  PCV 5 (10.0) 35 (14.0) 0.547
  Influenza 1 (2.0) 1 (0.4) 0.290
Underlying medical conditions (yes/no)
  Premature birth 7 (14.0) 19 (7.6) 0.105
  Malnutrition 6 (12.0) 10 (4.0) 0.027
  Neurologic illness 3 (6.0) 4 (1.6) 0.084
  Immune deficiency 1 (2.0) 9 (3.6) 0.569
  Anemia 4 (8.0) 19 (7.6) 0.904
  Diarrheal illness 0 (0.0) 20 (8.0) 0.997
Healthcare Exposures Before Measles Rash Onset
  Admitted to hospital 7–21 days before rash onset (yes/no) 18 (36.0) 65 (26.0) 0.134
Type of hospital
  District and Local hospitals 3 (6.0) 29 (11.6) REF
  Emergency hospital 10 (20.0) 18 (7.2) 0.123
  Specialty hospital 5 (10.0) 11 (4.4) 0.999
Diagnoses during pre-measles hospitalization (yes/no)
  Pneumonia 11 (22.0) 23 (9.2) 0.110
  Bronchitis 5 (10.0) 6 (2.4) 0.172
  Laryngitis 2 (4.0) 3 (1.2) 0.289
  Diarrhea 0 (0.0) 12 (4.8) 0.998
  1. aExact conditional logistic regression tests that the distribution of the study participants was different between the case and control groups, excluding “Unknown” categories
  2. b Fisher’s exact test
  3. cMatching variable
  4. dReceived > = 9 months of age and > = 28 days before rash onset