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Table 2 Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in SOT recipients. Herbrecht et al. [13] have listed the general risk factors for invasive fungal infections in haemato-oncological patients and solid organ transplant recipients, but the list is continuously increasing, and presently includes a number of additional factors [14,15,16], among them influenza, [17, 18]

From: Invasive aspergillosis in solid organ transplant patients: diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment, and assessment of response

  Risk factors References
Heart Reoperation; CMV infection; post-transplantation hemodialysis; presence of another patient with IA in the transplant program 2 months before or after the procedure; rejection, admission to the ICU, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) [19, 20]
Kidney Bloodstream infections; pre-transplant chronic pulmonary obstructive disease; impaired graft function; long-term dialysis prior to transplantation; serious post-transplant infections [21, 22]
Liver MELD score, choledochojejunostomy; anastomosis; bacterial infections in the first month and absence of antifungal prophylaxis; cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation; renal failure; hemodialysis; re-transplantation or transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure; reoperation [5, 12, 22,23,24]
Lung Single lung transplantation; pre- and post-transplant colonization with Aspergillus spp., early airway ischemia, CMV infection, rejection [25, 26]