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Table 2 Odds ratios$ of ILI, any virus, influenza (A or B), influenza A, influenza B on length of 445 school instruction, grade, sex, and 446 self-reported vaccination status among schoolchildren in Pittsburgh, PA. Variables significant at the 95% level are shown in bold

From: Influenza and other respiratory viral infections associated with absence from school among schoolchildren in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: a cohort study

  Response variable*
Symptomatic infection Laboratory confirmed infection
ILI Any respiratory virus% Influenza (A or B) Influenza A Influenza B
Random effect variables Percent of variance attributable to random effect^
 School 12.8 11.2 20.1 17.0 26.5
 District 0.0 1.5 1.9 0.0 9.6
 Residuals 87.2 87.3 78.0 83.0 63.9
Fixed effect variables Odds ratio (95% Confidence Intervals)
 Intercept 0.43 (0.29–0.65) 0.28 (0.16–0.49) 0.19 (0.09–0.40) 0.06 (0.03–0.14) 0.10 (0.04–0.25)
 Duration of attendance
  Full day (n = 1880) 1 1 1 1 1
  Half day (n = 197) 0.35 (0.21–0.57) 0.28 (0.15–0.51) 0.20 (0.10–0.43) 0.38 (0.12–1.17) 0.19 (0.08–0.45)
 Grade (linear term) 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.85 (0.77–0.95) 0.85 (0.72–0.99) 0.88 (0.78–1.00)
 Sex
  Male (n = 1082) 1 1 1 1 1
  Female (n = 995) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.81 (0.62–1.05) 0.94 (0.69–1.29) 1.00 (0.59–1.70) 0.90 (0.63–1.29)
 Vaccination
  No (n = 850) 1 1 1 1 1
  Yes (n = 694) 0.70 (0.54–0.90) 0.80 (0.59–1.08) 0.81 (0.57–1.17) 0.59 (0.32–1.12) 0.90 (0.60–1.36)
  Not reported (n = 533) 0.76 (0.58–1.01) 0.74 (0.53–1.03) 0.80 (0.54–1.20) 0.63 (0.32–1.25) 0.86 (0.54–1.37)
  1. $ Odd ratios were calculated using random effect logistic regression
  2. % Influenza A/H1, Influenza A/H3, Influenza B, RSV A, B, Picornavirus 1, 2, 3, 4, Metapneumovirus, Rhinovirus detected, Adenovirus B, C, E, Coronavirus 229E, NL63, HKU1, OC43 detected using Genmark Diagnostic’s RVP-RUO panel
  3. ^ Percentage of variance attributable to each random effect was calculated by dividing the standard deviation of each component by the total